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Plos Genetics : P8, Volume 4

By: Eric Rulifson

Description : Mutations in certain subunits of the DNA repair/transcription factor complex TFIIH are linked to the human syndromes xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), Cockayne’s syndrome (CS), and trichothiodystrophy (TTD). One of these subunits, p8/TTDA, interactswith p52 and XPD and is important inmaintaining TFIIH stability. Drosophila mutants in the p52 (Dmp52) subunit exhibit phenotypic defects similar to those observed in TTD patients with defects in p8/TTDA and XPD, inclu...

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Plos Genetics : a Novel System of Polymorphic and Diverse Nk Cell ...

By: Harmit S. Malik

Description : There are two main classes of natural killer (NK) cell receptors in mammals, the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and the structurally unrelated killer cell lectin-like receptors (KLR). While KIR represent the most diverse group of NK receptors in all primates studied to date, including humans, apes, and Old and New World monkeys, KLR represent the functional equivalent in rodents. Here, we report a first digression from this rule in lemurs, ...

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Plos Genetics : Association of the Oca2 Polymorphism His615Arg wit...

By: Gil McVean

Description : The last decade has witnessed important advances in our understanding of the genetics of pigmentation in European populations, but very little is known about the genes involved in skin pigmentation variation in East Asian populations. Here, we present the results of a study evaluating the association of 10 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) located within 5 pigmentation candidate genes (OCA2, DCT, ADAM17, ADAMTS20, and TYRP1) with skin pigmentation meas...

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Plos Genetics : Genome-wide Association Study Reveals Multiple Loc...

By: Greg Gibson

Description : Tooth development is a highly heritable process which relates to other growth and developmental processes, and which interacts with the development of the entire craniofacial complex. Abnormalities of tooth development are common, with tooth agenesis being the most common developmental anomaly in humans. We performed a genome-wide association study of time to first tooth eruption and number of teeth at one year in 4,564 individuals from the 1966 Northern Fi...

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Plos Genetics : Virulence Attributes and Hyphal Growth of C. Neofo...

By: Trudy MacKay

Description : Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungal human pathogen with a bipolar mating system. It undergoes a dimorphic transition from a unicellular yeast to hyphal filamentous growth during mating and monokaryotic fruiting. The traditional sexual cycle that leads to the production of infectious basidiospores involves cells of both a and a mating type. Monokaryotic fruiting is a modified form of sexual reproduction that involves cells of the same mating type, most commo...

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Plos Genetics : Localized Plasticity in the Streamlined Genomes of...

By: McMurdie Paul J.

Description : Vinyl chloride (VC) is a human carcinogen and widespread priority pollutant. Here we report the first, to our knowledge, complete genome sequences of microorganisms able to respire VC, Dehalococcoides sp. strains VS and BAV1. Notably, the respective VC reductase encoding genes, vcrAB and bvcAB, were found embedded in distinct genomic islands (GEIs) with different predicted integration sites, suggesting that these genes were acquired horizontally and indepen...

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Plos Genetics : a Molecular Phylogeny of Living Primates, Volume 7

By: Jrgen Brosius

Description : Comparative genomic analyses of primates offer considerable potential to define and understand the processes that mold, shape, and transform the human genome. However, primate taxonomy is both complex and controversial, with marginal unifying consensus of the evolutionary hierarchy of extant primate species. Here we provide new genomic sequence (,8 Mb) from 186 primates representing 61 (,90%) of the described genera, and we include outgroup species from Der...

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Plos Genetics : Variance of Gene Expression Identifies Altered Net...

By: Greg Gibson

Description : Gene expression analysis has become a ubiquitous tool for studying a wide range of human diseases. In a typical analysis we compare distinct phenotypic groups and attempt to identify genes that are, on average, significantly different between them. Here we describe an innovative approach to the analysis of gene expression data, one that identifies differences in expression variance between groups as an informative metric of the group phenotype. We find that...

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Plos Genetics : Pps, a Large Multidomain Protein, Functions with S...

By: Lisa Stubbs

Description : Alternative splicing controls the expression of many genes, including the Drosophila sex determination gene Sex-lethal (Sxl). Sxl expression is controlled via a negative regulatory mechanism where inclusion of the translation-terminating male exon is blocked in females. Previous studies have shown that the mechanism leading to exon skipping is autoregulatory and requires the SXL protein to antagonize exon inclusion by interacting with core spliceosomal prot...

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Plos Genetics : H4K20Me1 Contributes to Downregulation of X-linked...

By: William G. Kelly

Description : The Caenorhabditis elegans dosage compensation complex (DCC) equalizes X-chromosome gene dosage between XO males and XX hermaphrodites by two-fold repression of X-linked gene expression in hermaphrodites. The DCC localizes to the X chromosomes in hermaphrodites but not in males, and some subunits form a complex homologous to condensin. The mechanism by which the DCC downregulates gene expression remains unclear. Here we show that the DCC controls the methyl...

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Plos Genetics : Population Stratification of a Common Apobec Gene ...

By: Gilean A. T. McVean

Description : The APOBEC3 gene family plays a role in innate cellular immunity inhibiting retroviral infection, hepatitis B virus propagation, and the retrotransposition of endogenous elements. We present a detailed sequence and population genetic analysis of a 29.5-kb common human deletion polymorphism that removes the APOBEC3B gene. We developed a PCR-based genotyping assay, characterized 1,277 human diversity samples, and found that the frequency of the deletion allel...

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Plos Genetics : a General G1, Volume 8

By: Ravishankar Palanivelu

Description : The decision to replicate its DNA is of crucial importance for every cell and, in many organisms, is decisive for the progression through the entire cell cycle. A comparison of animals versus yeast has shown that, although most of the involved cell-cycle regulators are divergent in both clades, they fulfill a similar role and the overall network topology of G1/S regulation is highly conserved. Using germline development as a model system, we identified a re...

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Plos Genetics : Heterochromatic Threads Connect Oscillating Chromo...

By: Gregory P. Copenhaver

Description : In Drosophila oocytes achiasmate homologs are faithfully segregated to opposite poles at meiosis I via a process referred to as achiasmate homologous segregation. We observed that achiasmate homologs display dynamic movements on the meiotic spindle during mid-prometaphase. An analysis of living prometaphase oocytes revealed both the rejoining of achiasmate X chromosomes initially located on opposite half-spindles and the separation toward opposite poles of ...

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Plos Genetics : Natural Variation at the Frd3 Mate Transporter Loc...

By: Christian S. Hardtke

Description : Zinc (Zn) is essential for the optimal growth of plants but is toxic if present in excess, so Zn homeostasis needs to be finely tuned. Understanding Zn homeostasis mechanisms in plants will help in the development of innovative approaches for the phytoremediation of Zn-contaminated sites. In this study, Zn tolerance quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified by analyzing differences in the Bay-0 and Shahdara accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana. Fine-scale...

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Plos Genetics : Constitutive Nucleosome Depletion and Ordered Fact...

By: Lisa Stubbs

Description : Chromatin organization and transcriptional regulation are interrelated processes. A shortcoming of current experimental approaches to these complex events is the lack of methods that can capture the activation process on single promoters. We have recently described a method that combines methyltransferase M.SssI treatment of intact nuclei and bisulfite sequencing allowing the representation of replicas of single promoters in terms of protected and unprotect...

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Plos Genetics : Embryos of Robertsonian Translocation Carriers Exh...

By: Joy D. Delhanty

Description : Balanced chromosomal rearrangements represent one of the most common forms of genetic abnormality affecting approximately 1 in every 500 (0.2%) individuals. Difficulties processing the abnormal chromosomes during meiosis lead to an elevated risk of chromosomally abnormal gametes, resulting in high rates of miscarriage and/or children with congenital abnormalities. It has also been suggested that the presence of chromosome rearrangements may also cause an in...

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Plos Genetics : Genetic and Biochemical Assays Reveal a Key Role f...

By: John V. Moran

Description : Mobile group II introns retrohome by an RNP-based mechanism in which the intron RNA reverse splices into a DNA site and is reverse transcribed by the associated intron-encoded protein. The resulting intron cDNA is then integrated into the genome by cellular mechanisms that have remained unclear. Here, we used an Escherichia coli genetic screen and Taqman qPCR assay that mitigate indirect effects to identify host factors that function in retrohoming. We then...

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Plos Genetics : Reduced Neutrophil Count in People of African Desc...

By: Peter M. Visscher

Description : Persistently low white blood cell count (WBC) and neutrophil count is a well-described phenomenon in persons of African ancestry, whose etiology remains unknown. We recently used admixture mapping to identify an approximately 1-megabase region on chromosome 1, where ancestry status (African or European) almost entirely accounted for the difference in WBC between African Americans and European Americans. To identify the specific genetic change responsible fo...

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Plos Genetics : a Hybrid Likelihood Model for Sequence-based Disea...

By: Eleftheria Zeggini

Description : In the past few years, case-control studies of common diseases have shifted their focus from single genes to whole exomes. New sequencing technologies now routinely detect hundreds of thousands of sequence variants in a single study, many of which are rare or even novel. The limitation of classical single-marker association analysis for rare variants has been a challenge in such studies. A new generation of statistical methods for case-control association s...

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Plos Genetics : Germline Genetic Variants Disturbing the Let-7, Vo...

By: Marshall S. Horwitz

Description : Previous studies have shown that let-7 can repress the post-transcriptional translation of LIN28, and LIN28 in turn could block the maturation of let-7, forming a double-negative feedback loop. In this study, we investigated the effect of germline genetic variants on regulation of the homeostasis of the let-7/LIN28 loop and breast cancer risk. We initially demonstrated that the T/C variants of rs3811463, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located near t...

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