World Library  


 
  • Cover Image

Plos Genetics : Utx and Uty Demonstrate Histone Demethylase- Indep...

By: Joanna Wysocka

Description : UTX (KDM6A) and UTY are homologous X and Y chromosome members of the Histone H3 Lysine 27 (H3K27) demethylase gene family. UTX can demethylate H3K27: however, in vitro assays suggest that human UTY has lost enzymatic activity due to sequence divergence. We produced mouse mutations in both Utx and Uty. Homozygous Utx mutant female embryos are mid-gestational lethal with defects in neural tube, yolk sac, and cardiac development. We demonstrate that mouse UTY ...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Plos Genetics : Pseudogenization of a Sweet-receptor Gene Accounts...

By: Jonathan Flint

Description : Although domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) possess an otherwise functional sense of taste, they, unlike most mammals, do not prefer and may be unable to detect the sweetness of sugars. One possible explanation for this behavior is that cats lack the sensory system to taste sugars and therefore are indifferent to them. Drawing on work in mice, demonstrating that alleles of sweet-receptor genes predict low sugar intake, we examined the possibility that g...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Plos Genetics : Tissue Homeostasis in the Wing Disc of Drosophila ...

By: Norbert Perrimon

Description : All organisms have developed mechanisms to respond to organ or tissue damage that may appear during development or during the adult life. This process of regeneration is a major long-standing problem in Developmental Biology. We are using the Drosophila melanogaster wing imaginal disc to study the response to major damage inflicted during development. Using the Gal4/UAS/Gal80TS conditional system, we have induced massive cell killing by forcing activity of ...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Plos Genetics : the Contribution of Rna Decay Quantitative Trait L...

By: Greg Gibson

Description : Recent gene expression QTL (eQTL) mapping studies have provided considerable insight into the genetic basis for interindividual regulatory variation. However, a limitation of all eQTL studies to date, which have used measurements of steadystate gene expression levels, is the inability to directly distinguish between variation in transcription and decay rates. To address this gap, we performed a genome-wide study of variation in gene-specific mRNA decay rate...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Plos Genetics : Unraveling the Regulatory Mechanisms Underlying Ti...

By: Greg Gibson

Description : It is known that genetic variants can affect gene expression, but it is not yet completely clear through what mechanisms genetic variation mediate this expression. We therefore compared the cis-effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on gene expression between blood samples from 1,240 human subjects and four primary non-blood tissues (liver, subcutaneous, and visceral adipose tissue and skeletal muscle) from 85 subjects. We characterized four diffe...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Plos Genetics : Uncovering the Genome-wide Transcriptional Respons...

By: Jens Nielsen

Description : A key challenge in the production of second generation biofuels is the conversion of lignocellulosic substrates into fermentable sugars. Enzymes, particularly those from fungi, are a central part of this process, and many have been isolated and characterised. However, relatively little is known of how fungi respond to lignocellulose and produce the enzymes necessary for dis-assembly of plant biomass. We studied the physiological response of the fungus Asper...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Plos Genetics : Identification of Genetic and Chemical Modulators ...

By: James K. Chen

Description : Inner ear sensory hair cell death is observed in the majority of hearing and balance disorders, affecting the health of more than 600 million people worldwide. While normal aging is the single greatest contributor, exposure to environmental toxins and therapeutic drugs such as aminoglycoside antibiotics and antineoplastic agents are significant contributors. Genetic variation contributes markedly to differences in normal disease progression during aging and...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Plos Genetics : Aging and Chronic Sun Exposure Cause Distinct Epig...

By: Wolf Reik

Description : Epigenetic changes are widely considered to play an important role in aging, but experimental evidence to support this hypothesis has been scarce. We have used array-based analysis to determine genome-scale DNA methylation patterns from human skin samples and to investigate the effects of aging, chronic sun exposure, and tissue variation. Our results reveal a high degree of tissue specificity in the methylation patterns and also showed very little interindi...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Plos Genetics : a Review of Family-based Tests for Linkage Disequi...

By: David B. Allison

Description : Quantitative trait transmission/disequilibrium tests (quantitative TDTs) are commonly used in familybased genetic association studies of quantitative traits. Despite the availability of various quantitative TDTs, some users are not aware of the properties of these tests and the relationships between them. This review aims at outlining the broad features of the various quantitative TDT procedures carried out in the frequently used QTDT and FBAT packages. Spe...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Plos Genetics : Neuropeptides Function in a Homeostatic Manner to ...

By: Miriam B. Goodman

Description : Neuropeptides play crucial roles in modulating neuronal networks, including changing intrinsic properties of neurons and synaptic efficacy. We previously reported a Caenorhabditis elegans mutant, acr-2(gf), that displays spontaneous convulsions as the result of a gain-of-function mutation in a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit. The ACR-2 channel is expressed in the cholinergic motor neurons, and acr-2(gf) causes cholinergic overexcitation ac...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Plos Genetics : Small Rnas Prevent Transcription-coupled Loss of H...

By: Gregory P. Copenhaver

Description : In eukaryotes, histone H3 lysine 9 methylation (H3K9me) mediates silencing of invasive sequences to prevent deleterious consequences including the expression of aberrant gene products and mobilization of transposons. In Arabidopsis thaliana, H3K9me maintained by SUVH histone methyltransferases (MTases) is associated with cytosine methylation (5meC) maintained by the CMT3 cytosine MTase. The SUVHs contain a 5meC binding domain and CMT3 contains an H3K9me bin...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Plos Genetics : Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth Promoting Endo...

By: William F. Burkholder

Description : Enterobacter sp. 638 is an endophytic plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the stem of poplar (Populus trichocarpa6deltoides cv. H11-11), a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. The Enterobacter sp. 638 genome sequence reveals the presence of a 4,518,712 bp chromosome and a 157,749 bp plasmid (pENT638-1). Genome annotation and comparative genomics allowed the identification of an extended set of genes specific to the...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Plos Genetics : Pathways of Distinction Analysis ; a New Technique...

By: Nicholas J. Schork

Description : Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have become increasingly common due to advances in technology and have permitted the identification of differences in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles that are associated with diseases. However, while typical GWAS analysis techniques treat markers individually, complex diseases (cancers, diabetes, and Alzheimers, amongst others) are unlikely to have a single causative gene. Thus, there is a pressing need fo...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Plos Genetics : You Say You Want a Revolution ; an Interview with ...

By: Jane Gitschier
Read More
  • Cover Image

Plos Genetics : Leptotene, Volume 6

By: Monica Colaiacovo

Description : The Caenorhabditis elegans inner nuclear envelope protein matefin/SUN-1 plays a conserved, pivotal role in the process of genome haploidization. CHK-2–dependent phosphorylation of SUN-1 regulates homologous chromosome pairing and interhomolog recombination in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using time-lapse microscopy, we characterized the movement of matefin/SUN-1::GFP aggregates (the equivalent of chromosomal attachment plaques) and showed that the dynamics of ma...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Plos Genetics : Pre-disposition and Epigenetics Govern Variation i...

By: Diarmaid Hughes

Description : Bacteria suffer various stresses in their unpredictable environment. In response, clonal populations may exhibit cell-to-cell variation, hypothetically to maximize their survival. The origins, propagation, and consequences of this variability remain poorly understood. Variability persists through cell division events, yet detailed lineage information for individual stressresponse phenotypes is scarce. This work combines time-lapse microscopy and microfluidi...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Plos Genetics : Cell Reprogramming Requires Silencing of a Core Su...

By: Dirk Schübeler

Description : Transcription factor (TF)–induced reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) is associated with genome-wide changes in chromatin modifications. Polycomb-mediated histone H3 lysine-27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) has been proposed as a defining mark that distinguishes the somatic from the iPSC epigenome. Here, we dissected the functional role of H3K27me3 in TF–induced reprogramming through the inactivation of the H3K27 methylase E...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Plos Genetics : Checkpoints in a Yeast Differentiation Pathway Coo...

By: Gregory S. Barsh

Description : All eukaryotes have the ability to detect and respond to environmental and hormonal signals. In many cases these signals evoke cellular changes that are incompatible and must therefore be orchestrated by the responding cell. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, hyperosmotic stress and mating pheromones initiate signaling cascades that each terminate with a MAP kinase, Hog1 and Fus3, respectively. Despite sharing components, these pathways are initiated by...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Plos Genetics : Gene Expression and Stress Response Mediated by th...

By: Tetsuji Kakutani

Description : The epigenetic activity of transposable elements (TEs) can influence the regulation of genes: though, this regulation is confined to the genes, promoters, and enhancers that neighbor the TE. This local cis regulation of genes therefore limits the influence of the TE’s epigenetic regulation on the genome. TE activity is suppressed by small RNAs, which also inhibit viruses and regulate the expression of genes. The production of TE heterochromatin-associated e...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Plos Genetics : Transcription Factor Oct1 is a Somatic and Cancer ...

By: Marshall S. Horwitz

Description : Defining master transcription factors governing somatic and cancer stem cell identity is an important goal. Here we show that the Oct4 paralog Oct1, a transcription factor implicated in stress responses, metabolic control, and poised transcription states, regulates normal and pathologic stem cell function. Oct1HI cells in the colon and small intestine co-express known stem cell markers. In primary malignant tissue, high Oct1 protein but not mRNA levels stro...

Read More
 
1
|
2
|
3
Records: 21 - 40 of 45 - Pages: 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.