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Thermodynamic Characterization of Mexico City Aerosol During Milag...

By: M. Fischer; A. Sullivan; A. Nenes; C. Fountoukis; E. Matías; D. Farmer; R. Weber; R. C. Cohen; M. Moya; T. Van Reken

Description: School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA. Fast measurements of aerosol and gas-phase constituents coupled with the ISORROPIA-II thermodynamic equilibrium model are used to study the partitioning of semivolatile inorganic species and phase state of Mexico City aerosol sampled at the T1 site during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign. Overall, predicted semivolatile partitioning agrees well with measurements. ...

Amundson, N. R., Caboussat, A., He, J. W., Martynenko, A. V., Savarin, V. B., Seinfeld, J. H., and Yoo, K. Y.: A new inorganic atmospheric aerosol phase equilibrium model (UHAERO), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 975–992, 2006.; Ansari, A. S. and Pandis, S. N.: The effect of metastable equilibrium states on the partitioning of nitrate between the gas and aerosol phases, Atmos. Environ., 34, 157–168, 2000.; Ansari, A. S. and Pandis, S. N.: Prediction of multicomponent inorganic at...

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Summertime Free Tropospheric Ozone Pool Over the Eastern Mediterra...

By: J. Lelieveld; S. Dafka; E. Tyrlis; P. Hadjinicolaou; A. Pozzer; P. Zanis; N. Mihalopoulos

Description: Department of Meteorology and Climatology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Campus, Thessaloniki, Greece. Observations show that the Mediterranean troposphere is characterized by a marked enhancement in summertime ozone with a maximum over the Eastern Mediterranean. This has been linked to enhanced ozone photochemical production and subsidence under cloud-free anticyclonic conditions. The Eastern Mediterranean region ...

Akritidis, D., Zanis, P., Pytharoulis, I., Mavrakis, A., and Karacostas, T.: A deep stratospheric intrusion event down to the earth's surface of the megacity of Athens, Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 109, 9–18, doi:10.1007/s00703-010-0096-6, 2010.; Akritidis, D., Zanis, P., Katragkou, E., Schultz, M., Tegoulias, I., Poupkou, A., Markakis, K., Pytharoulis, I., and Karacostas, T.: Evaluation of near surface ozone in RegCM3/C...

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Peroxyacetyl Nitrate (Pan) and Peroxyacetic Acid (Paa) Measurement...

By: J. Thieser; N. Pouvesle; G. Schuster; H. Fischer; R. Axinte; G. J. Phillips; J. Williams; J. N. Crowley; J. Lelieveld

Description: Department of Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Hahn-Meitner Weg 1, 55128 Mainz, Germany. We describe measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (CH3C(O)O2NO2, PAN) and peroxyacetic acid (CH3C(O)OOH, PAA) in the Boreal forest using iodide chemical ionization mass spectrometry (ICIMS). The measurements were made during the Hyytiälä United Measurement of Photochemistry and Particles – Comprehe...

Atkinson, R. and Arey, J.: Gas-phase tropospheric chemistry of biogenic volatile organic compounds: a review, Atmos. Environ., 37, S197–S219, 2003.; Atkinson, R., Baulch, D. L., Cox, R. A., Crowley, J. N., Hampson, R. F., Hynes, R. G., Jenkin, M. E., Rossi, M. J., and Troe, J.: Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume I – gas phase reactions of \chem{O_x}, HOx, NOx and \chem{SO_x} species, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 146...

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Development and Application of a Reactive Plume-in-grid Model: Eva...

By: I. Korsakissok; V. Mallet

Description: CEREA, Joint Research Laboratory, ENPC/EDF R&D, Université Paris Est, 6–8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Champs-sur-Marne, Marne la Vallée Cedex 2, France. Emissions from major point sources are badly represented by classical Eulerian models. An overestimation of the horizontal plume dilution, a bad representation of the vertical diffusion as well as an incorrect estimate of the chemical reaction rates are the main limitations of such mod...

Karamchandani, P., Santos, L., Sykes, I., Zhang, Y., Tonne, C., and Seigneur, C.: Development and evaluation of a state-of-the-science reactive plume model, Environ. Sci. Technol., 34, 870–880, 2000.; Karamchandani, P., Seigneur, C., Vijayaraghavan, K., and Wu, S.: Development and application of a state-of-the-science plume-in-grid model, J. Geophys. Res., 107, D19, 4403, doi:10.1029/2002JD002123, 2002.; Korsakissok, I. ...

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Modelling Uv Irradiances on Arbitrarily Oriented Surfaces: Effects...

By: P. Koepke; M. Hess

Description: Meteorological Institute of the L.-M. University, Munich, Germany. A method is presented to calculate UV irradiances on inclined surfaces that additionally takes into account the influence of sky obstructions caused by obstacles such as mountains, houses, trees, or umbrellas. Thus the method allows calculating the impact of UV radiation on biological systems, such as for instance the human skin or eye, in any natural or artificial environment. The metho...

Arola A., et al.: Assessment of four methods to estimate surface UV radiation using satellite data, by comparison with ground measurements from four stations in Europe, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D16), 4333, doi:10.1029/2001JD000462, 2002.; Bais, A., Lubin, D., Arola, A., Bernhard, G., Blumthaler, M., Chubarova, N., Erlick, C., Gies, H. P., Krotkov, N., Lantz, K., Mayer, B., McKenzie, R. L., Piacentini, R.D., Seckmeyer, G., Slusser, J. R., and Zerefos, C. S.: Surface ultravio...

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Boundary Layer Nucleation as a Source of New Ccn in Savannah Envir...

By: D. V. Spracklen; N. Kgabi,; L. Laakso; M. Kulmala; K. S. Carslaw; D. Mabaso; M. Molefe; V. Vakkari,; H. Laakso; J. Merikanto; V.-m. Kerminen

Description: Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 64, 00014 Helsinki, Finland. The South African savannah region is complex environment of air pollution and natural emissions influenced by a strong seasonal cycle in biomass burning and strong precipitation. However, the scarcity of long-term observations means that our knowledge of controlling aerosol processes in this environment is very poor. Here we use a new dataset of 18 months of aerosol observations to ...

Aalto, P., Hämeri, K., Becker, E., Weber, R., Salm, J., Mäkelä, J. M., Hoell, C., O'Dowd, C. D., Karlsson, H., Hansson, H.-C., Väkevä, M., Koponen, I. K., Buzorius, G., and Kulmala, M.: Physical characterization of aerosol particles during nucleation events, Tellus, 53B, 344–358, 2001; Andreae, M. O. and Rosenfeld, D.: Aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions. Part 1. The nature and sources of cloud-active aerosols, Earth-Sci. Rev., 89, 13–41, 2008.; Benkovitz, C., Schol...

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Retrieving Tropospheric Nitrogen Dioxide Over China from the Ozone...

By: P. Stammes; P. Wang; K. Clémer; H. Irie; M. Van Roozendael; J.-t. Lin; K. F. Boersma; R. Spurr; R. V. Martin; M. Sneep

Description: Laboratory for Climate and Ocean-Atmosphere Studies, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. Retrievals of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) are subject to errors in the treatments of aerosols, surface reflectance anisotropy, and vertical profile of NO2. Here we quantify the influences over China via an improved retr...

Acarreta, J. R., De Haan, J. F., and Stammes, P.: Cloud pressure retrieval using the O2-O2 absorption band at 477 nm, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 109, D05204, doi:10.1029/2003jd003915, 2004.; Alexander, B., Park, R. J., Jacob, D. J., Li, Q. B., Yantosca, R. M., Savarino, J., Lee, C. C. W., and Thiemens, M. H.: Sulfate formation in sea-salt aerosols: constraints from oxygen isotopes, J. Geo...

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Contributions of Local and Regional Sources to Fine Pm in the Mega...

By: C. Fountoukis; A. G. Megaritis; B. N. Murphy; K. Skyllakou; S. N. Pandis

Description: Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Patras, Greece. The Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) is used together with PMCAMx, a regional chemical transport model, to estimate how local emissions and pollutant transport affect primary and secondary particulate matter mass concentration levels in Paris. During the summer and the winter periods examined, only 13% of the PM2.5 is predicted to be due to...

Burtraw, D., Krupnick, A., Mansur, E., Austin, D., and Farrell, D.: Costs and benefits of reducing air pollutants related to acid rain, Contemp. Econ. Policy, 16, 379–400, doi:10.1111/j.1465-7287.1998.tb00527.x, 2007.; Cabada, J. C., Pandis, S. N., Subramanian, R., Robinson, A. L., Polidori, A., and Turpin, B.: Estimating the secondary organic aerosol contribution to PM2.5 using the EC tracer met...

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Sources, Trends and Regional Impacts of Fine Particulate Matter in...

By: M.-c. Chalbot; I. G. Kavouras; B. McElroy

Description: University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA. The sources of fine particles over a 10 yr period at Little Rock, Arkansas, an urban area in southern Mississippi Valley, were identified by positive matrix factorization. The annual trends of PM2.5 and its sources and their associations with the pathways of air mass backward trajectories were examined. Seven sources were apportioned, namely, primary traff...

ASHTD (Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department): Annual Average Daily Traffic Estimates, 2011.; Ashbaugh, L. L., Malm, W. C., and Sadeh, W. Z.: A residence time probability analysis of sulfur concentrations at Grand Canyon National Park, Atmos. Environ., 19, 1263–1270, 1985.; Brunekreef, B. and Forsberg, B.: Epidemiological evidence of effects of coarse airborne particles on health, Eur. Respir. J., 26, 309–318, 2005.; Brunekreef, B. and Holgate, S. T.: Air ...

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Measured and Modelled Cloud Condensation Nuclei Concentration at t...

By: P. F. Decarlo; M. Gysel; E. Weingartner; U. Baltensperger; L. Kammermann; Z. Jurányi

Description: Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland. Atmospheric aerosol particles are able to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and are therefore important for the climate and the hydrological cycle, but their properties are not fully understood. Total CCN number concentrations at 10 different supersaturations in the range of SS = 0.12–1.18% were measured in May 2008 at the remote high alpine research...

Albrecht, B. A.: Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and fractional cloudiness. Science, 245, 1227–1230, 1989.; Baltensperger, U., Gäggeler, H. W., Jost, D. T., Lugauer, M., Schwikowski, M., Weingartner, E., and Seibert, P.: Aerosol climatology at the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch, Switzerland. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 19707–19715, 1997.; Bougiatioti, A., Fountoukis, C., Kalivitis, N., Pandis, S. N., Nenes, A., and Mihalopoulos, N.: Cloud condensation nuclei measurement in the m...

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How Quickly Do Cloud Droplets Form on Atmospheric Particles? : Vol...

By: C. R. Ruehl; A. Nenes; P. Y. Chuang

Description: Earth & Planetary Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, California, USA. The influence of aerosols on cloud properties is an important modulator of the climate system. Traditional Köhler theory predicts the equilibrium concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN); however, it is not known to what extent particles exist in the atmosphere that may be prevented from acting as CCN by kinetic limitations. We measured the rate of cloud droplet f...

Bachalo, W. D. and Sankar, S. V.: Phase Doppler particle analyzer, in: Handbook of Fluid Dynamics, edited by: Johnson, R. W., CRC Press, 1996.; Andrews, E., Sheridan, P. J., Ogren, J. A., and Ferrare, F.: In situ aerosol profiles over the Southern Great Plains cloud and radiation test bed site: 1. Aerosol optical properties, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D06208, doi:10.1029/2003JD004025, 2004.; Bilde, M. and Svenningsson, B.: CCN activation of slightly soluble organics: the imp...

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Behaviour of Tracer Diffusion in Simple Atmospheric Boundary Layer...

By: P. S. Anderson; S. J.-b. Bauguitte

Description: British Antarctic Survey, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0ET, UK. 1-D profiles and time series from an idealised atmospheric boundary layer model are presented, which show agreement with boundary layer measurements of polar NOx. Diffusion models are increasingly being used as the framework for studying tropospheric air chemistry dynamics. Models based on standard boundary layer diffusivity profiles have an intrinsic behaviour that is not nece...

Ambach, W.: The influence of cloudiness on the net radiation balance of a snow surface with high albedo, J. Glaciol., 13, 73–84, 1974.; Davis, D., Eisele, F., Chen, G., et al.: An overview of ISCAT 2000, Atmos. Environ., 38(32), 5363–5373, 2004.; Dibb, J. E. and Jaffrezo, J. L.: Air-snow exchange investigations at Summit, Greenland: An overview, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 26 795–26 807, 1997.; Jones, A. E., Anderson, P. S., Wolff, E. W., Turner, J., Rankin, A. M., and Colwel...

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Examination of the Aerosol Indirect Effect Under Contrasting Envir...

By: H. Guo; H. Pawlowska; J. E. Penner; M. Herzog

Description: Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. The Active Tracer High-resolution Atmospheric Model (ATHAM) has been adopted to examine the aerosol indirect effect in contrasting clean and polluted cloudy boundary layers during the Second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2). Model results are in good agreement with available in-situ observations, which provides confidence in the results of ATHAM....

Ackerman, A. S., Toon, O. B., Stevens, D. E., and Coakley Jr., J. A.: Enhancement of cloud cover and suppression of nocturnal drizzle in stratocumulus polluted by haze, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(7), 1381, doi:10.1029/2002GL016634, 2003.; Ackerman, A. S., Kirkpatrick, M. P., Stevens, D. E., and Toon, O. B.: The impact of humidity above stratiform clouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing, Nature, 432, 1014–1017, 2004.; Anderson, T. L., Charlson, R. J., Schwartz, S. E., Knu...

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Simultaneous Assimilation of Satellite No2, O3, Co, and Hno3 Data ...

By: H. J. Eskes; K. Sudo; M. Takigawa; K. F. Boersma; K. Miyazaki; M. Van Weele

Description: Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), Wilhelminalaan 10, 3732 GK, De Bilt, The Netherlands. We have developed an advanced chemical data assimilation system to combine observations of chemical compounds from multiple satellites. NO2, O3, CO, and HNO3 measurements from the OMI, TES, MOPITT, and MLS satellite instruments are assimilated into the global chemical transport model CHASER for the year...

Allen, D. J. and Pickering, K. E.: Evaluation of lightning flash rate parameterizations for use in a global chemical transport model, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4711, doi:10.1029/2002JD002066, 2002.; Daniel, J. S. and Solomon, S.: On the climate forcing of carbon monoxide, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 13249–13260, 1998.; Arellano, A. and Hess, P.: Sensitivity of top-down estimates of CO sources to GCTM transport, Geophys. Res. Let...

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Comprehensive Two-dimensional Gas Chromatography (Gc×gc) Measureme...

By: M. Adahchour; X. Xu; U. A. T. Brinkman; J. Lelieveld; J. Beens; L. L. P. Van Stee; J. Williams; R. J. J. Vreuls

Description: Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany. During the MINOS campaign in August 2001 comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) was applied to the in situ measurements of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at the Finokalia ground station, Crete. The measurement system employs a thermal desorption unit for on-line sampling and injection, and a GCxGC separation system equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID) ...

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Manipulating Marine Stratocumulus Cloud Amount and Albedo: a Proce...

By: H. Wang; G. Feingold; P. J. Rasch

Description: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Atmospheric Sciences & Global Change Division, Richland, WA, USA. We use a cloud-system-resolving model to study marine-cloud brightening. We examine how injected aerosol particles that act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are transported within the marine boundary layer and how the additional particles in clouds impact cloud microphysical processes, and feedback on dynamics. Results show that the effectiv...

Bala, G., Caldreia, K., Nemani, R., Cao, L., Ban-Weiss, G., and Shin, H-J.: Albedo enhancement of marine cloud to counteract global warming: impacts on the hydrological cycle, Clim. Dynam., doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0868-1, 2010.; Bower, K., Choularton, T., Latham, J., Sahraei, J., and Salter, S.: Computational assessment of a proposed technique for global warming mitigation via albedo-enhancement of marine stratocumul...

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Modeling Secondary Organic Aerosol in an Urban Area: Application t...

By: N. Marchand; Y. Kim; J. Sciare; C. Seigneur; K. Sartelet; F. Couvidat

Description: CEREA, Joint Laboratory École des Ponts ParisTech/EDF R&D, Université Paris-Est, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée, France. A secondary organic aerosol (SOA) model, H2O (Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic Organic), is evaluated over the Paris area. This model treats the formation of SOA with two kinds of surrogate species: hydrophilic species (which condense preferentially on an aqueous phase) and hydrophobic species (which condense only on an organic phase). These ...

; Airparif: Source apportionment of airborne particles in {I}le-de-{F}rance - Final Report, Tech. rep., Airparif, Paris, France, 2011.; Allan, J. D., Williams, P. I., Morgan, W. T., Martin, C. L., Flynn, M. J., Lee, J., Nemitz, E., Phillips, G. J., Gallagher, M. W., and Coe, H.: Contributions from transport, solid fuel burning and cooking to primary organic aerosols in two UK cities, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 647–668, doi:1...

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Influence of Cloud Processing on Ccn Activation Behaviour in the T...

By: K. Ignatius; K. Dieckmann; H. Wex; H. Herrmann; E. Harris; M. Schäfer; P. Zedler; F. Stratmann; Z. Wu; M. Merkel; W. Birmili; B. Sinha; S. Mertes; S. Henning; A. Wiedensohler; D. Van Pinxteren

Description: Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, 04318 Leipzig, Germany. Within the framework of the international cloud experiment Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia 2010 (HCCT-2010), the influence of cloud processing on the activation properties of ambient aerosol particles was investigated. Particles were probed up- and downwind of an orographic cap cloud on Mt. Schmücke, which is part of a large mountain ridge in Thuringia, Germany. The activation properties...

Birmili, W., Stratmann, F., and Wiedensohler, A.: Design of a DMA-based size spectrometer for a large particle size range and stable operation, J. Aerosol Sci., 30, 549–553, 1999.; Bower, B. K. N., Choularton, T. W., Gallagher, M. W., Beswick, K. M., Flynn, M. J., Allen, A. G., Davison, B. M., James, J. D., Robertson, L., Harrison, R. M., Hewitt, C. N., Cape, J. N., McFadyen, G. G., Milford, C., Sutton, M. A., Martinsson, B. G., Frank, G., Swietlicki, E., Zhou, J., Berg,...

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Source Attribution and Process Analysis for Atmospheric Mercury in...

By: T. Wang; V. Matthias; J. Bieser; J. Zhu

Description: School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China. The contribution from different emission sources and atmospheric processes to gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), particulate bound mercury (PBM) and mercury deposition in East China were quantified using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ-Hg) modeling system run with nested grid resolution of 27 km. Natural source (NAT) and six categories o...

Bieser, J., De Simone, F., Gencarelli, C., Geyer, B., Hedgecock, I., Matthias, V., Travnikov, O., and Weigelt, A.: A diagnostic evaluation of modeled mercury wet depositions in Europe using atmospheric speciated high-resolution observations, Environ. Sci. Pollut. R., 21, 9995–10012, 2014.; Binkowski, F. S. and Roselle, S. J.: Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model aerosol component 1. Model description, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4183–4201, doi:

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Production and Growth of New Particles During Two Cruise Campaigns...

By: H. W. Gao; X. H. Liu; M. Zheng; Y. J. Zhu; X. H. Yao

Description: Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Ecology, Ministry of Education of China, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China. In this paper, we investigated production and growth of new particles in the marine atmosphere during two cruise campaigns in China Seas using a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer. Only eight new particle formation (NPF) events (> 30 min) occurred on 5 days out of 31 sampling days, and the subsequent growth of new particles was ob...

Chang, R. Y. W., Sjostedt, S. J., Pierce, J. R., Papakyriakou, T. N., Scarratt, M. G., Michaud, S., Levasseur, M., Leaitch, W. R., and Abbatt, J. P. D.: Relating atmospheric and oceanic DMS levels to particle nucleation events in the Canadian Arctic, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D00S03, doi:10.1029/2011JD015926, 2011.; Charlson, R. J., Lovelock, J. E., Andreae, M. O., and Warren, S. G.: Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulph...

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