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Thermodynamics


Thermodynamics is the science of energy conversion involving heat and other forms of energy, most notably mechanical work. It studies and interrelates the macroscopic variables, such as temperature, volume and pressure, which describe physical, thermodynamic systems.

 
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The Tipping Temperature Within Subglacial Lake Ellsworth, West Ant...

By: A. M. Smith; K. Grosfeld; C. Mayer; N. Ross; J. Woodward; M. Thoma

Description: Bavarian Academy of Sciences, Commission for Glaciology, Alfons-Goppel-Str. 11, 80539 Munich, Germany. We present results from new geophysical data allowing 3-D modelling of the water flow within Subglacial Lake Ellsworth (SLE), West Antarctica. Our simulations indicate that this lake has a novel temperature distribution due to significantly thinner ice than other surveyed subglacial lakes. The critical pressure boundary (tipping depth), established from...

Dowdeswell, J. A. and Siegert, M. J.: The physiography of modern Antarctic subglacial lakes, Global Planet. Change, 35, 221–236, 2002.; Bentley, M. J., Fogwill, C. J., Le Brocq, A. M., Hubbard, A. L., Sugden, D. E., Dunai, T. J., and Freeman, S. P. H. T.: Deglacial history of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet in the Weddell Sea embayment: constrains on past ice volume change, 38, 411–414, 2010.; Filina, I. Y., Blankenship, D. D., Thoma, M., Lukin, V. V., Masolov, V. N., and S...

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The Tipping Temperature Within Subglacial Lake Ellsworth, West Ant...

By: A. M. Smith; K. Grosfeld; C. Mayer; N. Ross; J. Woodward; M. Thoma

Description: Bavarian Academy of Sciences, Commission for Glaciology, Alfons-Goppel-Str. 11, 80539 Munich, Germany. We present results from new geophysical data allowing 3-D modelling of the water flow within Subglacial Lake Ellsworth (SLE), West Antarctica. Our simulations indicate that this lake has a novel temperature distribution due to significantly thinner ice than other surveyed subglacial lakes. The critical pressure boundary (tipping depth), established from...

Dowdeswell, J. A. and Siegert, M. J.: The physiography of modern Antarctic subglacial lakes, Global Planet. Change, 35, 221–236, 2002.; Bentley, M. J., Fogwill, C. J., Le Brocq, A. M., Hubbard, A. L., Sugden, D. E., Dunai, T. J., and Freeman, S. P. H. T.: Deglacial history of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet in the Weddell Sea embayment: constrains on past ice volume change, 38, 411–414, 2010.; Filina, I. Y., Blankenship, D. D., Thoma, M., Lukin, V. V., Masolov, V. N., and S...

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Variability and Changes of Arctic Sea Ice Thickness Distribution U...

By: J. Haapala; A. Oikkonen

Description: Univ. of Helsinki, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 48, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland. Changes of the mean sea ice thickness and concentration in the Arctic are well known. However, comparable little is known about the ice thickness distribution and the composition of ice pack in quantity. In this paper we determine the ice thickness distributions, mean and modal thicknesses, and their regional and seasonal variability in the Arctic un...

Belchansky, G. I., Douglas, D. C., Alpatsky, I. V., and Platonov, N. G.: Spatial and temporal multiyear sea ice distribution in the A}rctic: a neural network analysis of {SSM/I data, 1988–2001, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C10017, doi:10.1029/2004JC002388, 2004.; Bitz, C. M. and Roe, G. H.: A mechanism for the high rate of sea ice thinning in the {A}rctic {O}cean, J. Climate, 17, 3623–3632, 2004.; Belchansky, G. I., Douglas, D...

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The Multiphase Physics of Sea Ice: a Review : Volume 5, Issue 4 (2...

By: E. C. Hunke; A. K. Turner; M. Vancoppenolle; D. Notz

Description: Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA. Rather than being solid throughout, sea ice contains liquid brine inclusions, solid salts, microalgae, trace elements, gases, and other impurities which all exist in the interstices of a porous, solid ice matrix. This multiphase structure of sea ice arises from the fact that the salt that exists in seawater cannot be embedded into the water-ice crystal lattice upon formation of sea ice, but re...

Anderson, D. M., McFadden, G. B., and Wheeler, A. A.: A phase-field model of solidification with convection, Physica D, 135, 175–194, 2000.; Andreae, M. O. and Raemdronck, H.: Dimethyl sulfide in the surface ocean and the marine atmosphere: A global view, Science, 221, 744–747, 1983.; Arrigo, K., Kremer, J. N., and Sullivan, C. W.: A simulated Antarctic fast ice ecosystem, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 6929–6946, 1993.; Arrigo, K., Worthen, D. L., Lizotte, M. P., Dixon, P., and ...

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Cyclone Impact on Sea Ice in the Central Arctic Ocean: a Statistic...

By: B. Brümmer; A. Kriegsmann

Description: Meteorological Institute, University of Hamburg, Germany. This study investigates the impact of cyclones on the Arctic Ocean sea ice for the first time in a statistical manner. We apply the coupled ice–ocean model NAOSIM which is forced by the ECMWF analyses for the period 2006–2008. Cyclone position and radius detected in the ECMWF data are used to extract fields of wind, ice drift, and concentration from the ice–ocean model. Composite fields around...

Brümmer, B., Müller, G., and Hoeber, H.: A Fram Strait cyclone: properties and impact on ice drift as measured by aircraft and buoys, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4217, doi:10.1029/2002JD002638, 2003.; Brümmer, B., Schröder, D., Müller, G., Spreen, G., Jahnke-Bornemann, A., and Launiainen, J.: Impact of a Fram Strait cyclone on ice edge, drift, divergence, and concentration: possibilities and limits of an observational analysi...

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Sea-ice Extent Provides a Limited Metric of Model Performance : Vo...

By: D. Notz

Description: Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany. We examine the common practice of using sea-ice extent as the primary metric to evaluate modeled sea-ice coverage. Based on this analysis, we recommend a possible best practice for model evaluation. We find that for Arctic summer sea ice, model biases in sea-ice extent can be qualitatively different compared to biases in the geophysically more meaningful sea-ice area. These differences come ab...

Hibler, W. D.: A dynamic thermodynamic sea ice model, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 9, 815–846, 1979.; Agnew, T. and Howell, S.: The use of operational ice charts for evaluating passive microwave ice concentration data, Atmos.-Ocean, 41, 317–331, doi:10.3137/ao.410405, 2003.; Fetterer, F., Knowles, K., Meier, W., and Savoie, M.: Sea Ice Index, Digital media, National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, Colorado USA, 2002, updated 2012...

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Sea Ice and the Ocean Mixed Layer Over the Antarctic Shelf Seas : ...

By: P. R. Holland; D. L. Feltham; A. A. Petty

Description: Centre for Polar Observation and Modelling, Department of Earth Sciences, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT, UK. An ocean mixed layer model has been incorporated into the Los Alamos sea ice model CICE to investigate regional variations in the surface-driven formation of Antarctic shelf waters. This model captures well the expected sea ice thickness distribution, and produces deep (> 500 m) mixed layers in the Weddell and Ross shelf seas e...

Antonov, J. I., Seidov, D., Boyer, T. P., Locarnini, R. A., Mishonov, A. V., Garcia, H. E., Baranova, O. K., Zweng, M. M., and Johnson, D. R.: World Ocean Atlas 2009, vol. 2: Salinity, edited by: Levitus, S.,. NOAA Atlas NESDIS, 69, 184 pp., 2010.; Arneborg, L., Wahlin, A. K., Bjork, G., Liljebladh, B., and Orsi, A. H.: Persistent inflow of warm water onto the central Amundsen shelf, Nat. Geosci., 5, 876–880, doi:10.1038/ngeo164...

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Simulating the Role of Gravel on the Dynamics of Permafrost on the...

By: Q. Wu; Y. Ding; J. Chen; S. Yi

Description: State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Donggang West Road, 730000, Lanzhou, Gansu, China. Gravel (particle size ≥ 2 mm) is common in soil profiles of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). It has different thermal and hydrological properties than other fine mineral soils (particle size < 2 mm), which may have significant impacts on the thermal and h...

Arocena, J., Hall, K., and Zhu, L. P.: Soil formation in high elevation and permafrost areas in the Qinghai Plateau (China), Spanish Journal of Soil Sciences, 2, 34–49, 2012.; Chen, Y., Yang, K., Tang, W., Qin, J., and Zhao, L.: Parameterizing soil organic carbon's impacts on soil porosity and thermal parameters for Eastern Tibet grasslands, Sci. China Ser. D, 55, 1001–1011, 2012.; Clapp, R. B. and Hornberger, G. M.: Empirical Equations for some soil hydraulic properties...

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On the Characteristics of Sea Ice Divergence/Convergence in the So...

By: R. J. Galley; R. L. Raddatz; D. G. Babb; J. V. Lukovich; D. G. Barber

Description: Centre for Earth Observation Science (CEOS), CH Riddell Faculty of Environment, Earth, and Resources, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2, Canada. An understanding of spatial gradients in sea ice motion, or deformation, is essential to understanding of ocean-sea-ice-atmosphere interactions and realistic representations of sea ice in models used for the purposes of prediction. This is particularly true for the southern Beaufort Sea, wh...

Asplin, M. G., Galley, R., Barber, D. G., and Prinsenberg, S.: Fracture of summer perennial sea ice by ocean swell as a result of Arctic storms, J. Geophys. Res., 117, C06025, doi:10.1029/2011JC007221, 2012.; Barber, D. G., Galley, R., Asplin, M. G., De Abreu, R., Warner, K.-A., Pućko, M., Gupta, M., Prinsenberg, S., and Julien, S.: Perennial pack ice in the southern Beaufort Sea was not as it appeared in the summer of 2...

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Surface Speed and Frontal Ablation of Kronebreen and Kongsbreen, N...

By: J. Kohler; A. Kääb; T. Schellenberger; C. H. Reijmer; T. Dunse

Description: Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1047, Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway. Kronebreen and Kongsbreen are among the fastest flowing glaciers on Svalbard, and therefore important contributors to glacier mass loss from the archipelago through frontal ablation. Here, we present a time series of area-wide surface velocity fields from April 2012 to December 2013 based on offset tracking on repeat high-resolution Radarsat-2 Ultrafine data. Surfa...

Benn, D. I., Warren, C. R., and Mottram, R. H.: Calving processes and the dynamics of calving glaciers, Earth-Sci. Rev., 82, 143–179, doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2007.02.002, 2007.; Blaszczyk, M., Jania, J. A., and Hagen, J. O.: Tidewater glaciers of Svalbard: recent changes and estimates of calving fluxes, Polish Polar Res., 30, 85–142, 2009.; Burgess, E. W., Larsen, C. F., and Forster, R. R.: Summer melt regulat...

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Sea Ice Melt Pond Fraction Estimation from Dual-polarisation C-ban...

By: D. G. Barber; R. K. Scharien; J. Landy

Description: Centre for Earth Observation Science, Faculty of Environment Earth and Resources, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, USA. An understanding of the evolution of melt ponds on Arctic sea ice is important for climate model parameterizations, weather forecast models, and process studies involving mass, energy and biogeochemical exchanges across the ocean-sea ice–atmosphere interface. A field campaign was conducted on landfast first-year sea ice in t...

Andreas, E. L., Persson, P. O. G., Jordan, R. E., Horst, T. W., Guest, P. S., Grachev, A. A., and Fairall, C. W.: Parameterizing the turbulent surface fluxes over summer sea ice, 8th Conf. on Polar Meteor. and Oceanog., 9–13 January 2005, San Diego, CA, Abstract 83848, 2005.; Barber, D. G. and Yackel, J. J.: The physical, radiative and microwave scattering characteristics of melt ponds on Arctic landfast sea ice, Int. J. Remote Sens., 20, 2069–2090,

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A Data-constrained Model for Compatibility Check of Remotely Sense...

By: H. H. Hellmer; F. F. J. H. Buck; D. Olbers

Description: Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Bussestr. 24, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany. The ice shelf caverns around Antarctica are sources of cold and fresh water which contributes to the formation of Antarctic bottom water and thus to the ventilation of the deep basins of the World Ocean. While a realistic simulation of the cavern circulation requires high resolution, because of the complicated bottom topography and ice shel...

Assmann, K., Hellmer, H. H., and Beckmann, A.: Seasonal variation in circulation and water mass distribution on the Ross Sea continental shelf, Antarct. Sci., 15, 3–11, 2003.; Beckmann, A., Hellmer, H., and Timmermann, R.: A numerical model of the Weddell Sea: large scale circulation and water mass distribution, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 23375–23391, 1999.; Corr, H., Doake, C., Jenkins, A., and Vaughan, D.: Investigations of an ice plain in the mouth of Pine Island Glacier,...

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An Analytical Model for Wind-driven Arctic Summer Sea Ice Drift : ...

By: A. L. Stewart; H.-s. Park

Description: Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon, South Korea. The authors present an approximate analytical model for wind-induced sea-ice drift that includes an ice–ocean boundary layer with an Ekman spiral in the ocean velocity. This model provides an analytically tractable solution that is most applicable to the marginal ice zone, where sea-ice concentration is substantially below 100%. The model closely reproduces the ice and upper-oce...

McPhee, M. G.: On the turbulent mixing length in the oceanic boundary layer, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 2014–2031, 1994.; Bitz, C. M., Fyfe, J., and Flato, G.: Sea ice response to wind forcing from AMIP models, J. Climate, 15, 522–536, 2002.; Bitz, C. M. and Polvani, L. M.: Antarctic climate response to stratospheric ozone depletion in a fine resolution ocean climate model, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L20705, doi:10.1029/2012GL053...

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A 3-d Simulation of Drifting Snow in the Turbulent Boundary Layer ...

By: N. Huang; Z. Wang

Description: Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China (Lanzhou University), The Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou, 730000, China. The drifting snow is one of the most important factors that affect the global ice mass balance and hydrological balance. Current models of drifting snow are usually one- or two-dimensional, focusing on the macroscopic quantities of drifting snow under temporal average flow. In this paper, we take the...

Uematsu, T., Nakata, T., Takeuchi, K., Arisawa, Y., and Kaneda, Y.: Three-dimensional numerical simulation of snowdrift, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 20, 65–73, 1991.; Taylor, P.: The thermodynamic effects of sublimating, blowing snow in the atmospheric boundary layer, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 89, 251–283, 1998.; Gromke, C., Horender, S., Walter, B., and Lehning, M.: Snow particle characteristics in the saltation layer, J. Glaciol., 60, 431–439, 2014.; Fukushima, Y., Etoh, T.,...

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Utilisation of Cryosat-2 Sar Altimeter in Operational Ice Charting...

By: M. Similä; E. Rinne

Description: Finnish Meteorological Institute, Marine Research, P.O. Box 503, 00101 Helsinki, Finland. We present methods to utilise Cryosat-2 (CS-2) Synthetic Aperture (SAR) mode data in operational ice charting. We compare CS-2 data qualitatively to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mosaics over Barents and Kara seas. Furthermore, we compare the CS-2 to archived operational ice charts. We present distributions of four CS-2 waveform parameters for diffe...

ANISTIAMO Reports: Enhanced Artic Sea Ice (ANISTIAMO) Reports, Tech. rep., ESA, available at: www.arcice.org, last access: 27 July 2015, 2014.; Bamber, J.: Ice-sheet altimeter processing scheme, Int. J. Remote Sens., 15, 925–938, 1994.; Bouzinac, C.: CryoSat Product Handbook, ESA User Manual, ESA, ESRIN, Italy, 2014.; Bushuev, A. and Loshchilov, V.: Ice chart composition at AARI, in: Remote Sensing of Sea Ice in the Northern Sea Route: Studies ...

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Late Summer Sea Ice Segmentation with Multi-polarisation Sar Featu...

By: A. S. Fors; T. Eltoft; S. Gerland; C. Brekke; A. P. Doulgeris; A. H. H. Renner

Description: Department of Physics and Technology, University of Tromsø – The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø, Norway. In this study we investigate the potential of sea ice segmentation by C- and X-band multi-polarisation synthetic aperture radar (SAR) features during late summer. Five high-resolution satellite SAR scenes were recorded in the Fram Strait covering iceberg-fast first-year and old sea ice during a week with air temperatures varying around...

Barber, D. G., Yackel, J. J., Wolf, R. L., and Lumsden, W.: Estimating the thermodynamic state of snow covered sea ice using time series Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data, in: International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers Vol. III, The Eighth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, 24–29 May 1998, Montreal, Canada, 50-541998.; Bowman, A. W. and Azzalini, A.: Applied Smoothing Techniques for Data Analysis, Oxford University Press, New York, 1997...

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Multibasic Weak Organic Acids in the Electrolyte and the Electroch...

By: Helen He Voices
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The Solubility of Oxygen and Ozone in Liquids

By: Rubin Battino

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: The subject of vibrational energy transfer is a mature field of measurement science, in spite of its short history. Detailed measurements began in the late years of the 60's with the introduction of lasers. Before that, shock tube and spectrophone measurements provided the only known vibrational relaxation rates. The hydrogen halides, as a group of molecules, were the subject of intense investigation for vibrational energy transfer rates because of their ex...

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Transport Properties of Fluid Oxygen

By: A. Laeseckea

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: Oxygen is used in many technological processes ranging from low temperature conditions in gas liquefaction to applications at high temperatures and pressures in rocket propulsion systems. The efficient design of all these processes requires an accurate knowledge or the thermophysical properties of oxygen over a particularly wide range of fluid states.

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Simultaneous Treatment of Vapor Pressures and Related Thermal Data...

By: Kvetoslav RfIickaa

Technical Reference Publication

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