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Thermodynamics


Thermodynamics is the science of energy conversion involving heat and other forms of energy, most notably mechanical work. It studies and interrelates the macroscopic variables, such as temperature, volume and pressure, which describe physical, thermodynamic systems.

 
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Octanol-Water Partition Coefficients of Simple Organic Compounds

By: James Sangster

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: A pure substance may distribute itself between two partially miscible solvents in intimate contact, and the equilibrium ratio of solute concentrations in the two phases has come to be known as the distribution coefficient or partition coefficient. In preparative organic chemistry, the use of solvents of greatly differing polarity (e.g., hydrocarbon and water) facilitates the extraction and purification of desired products. In addition, the biological activi...

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H2O and Hcl Trace Gas Kinetics on Crystalline Hcl Hydrates and Amo...

By: R. Iannarelli; M. J. Rossi

Description: Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry (LAC), Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), PSI Villigen, 5232, Switzerland. In this laboratory study, H2O ice films of 1 to 2 μm thickness have been used as surrogates for ice particles at atmospherically relevant conditions in a stirred flow reactor (SFR) to measure the kinetics of evaporation and condensation of HCl and H2O on crystalline and amorphous HCl hydrates. A multidiagnostic approach has bee...

Abbatt J. P. D., Beyer, K. D., Fucaloro, A. F., McMahon, J. R., Wooldridge, P. J., Zhang, R., and Molina, M. J.: Interaction of HCl Vapor with Water-ice: Implications for the Stratosphere, J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15819–15826, 1992.; Ammann, M., Cox, R. A., Crowley, J. N., Jenkin, M. E., Mellouki, A., Rossi, M. J., Troe, J., and Wallington, T. J.: Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume VI – heterogeneous reactions with liquid substrates, A...

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Ergodicity Test of the Eddy-covariance Technique : Volume 15, Issu...

By: S. Lü; Y. Yu; J. Chen; Y. Hu

Description: Key Laboratory of Land Surface Processes and Climate Change in Cold and Arid Regions, Cold and Arid Regions Environment and Engineering Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China. The ergodic hypothesis is a basic hypothesis typically invoked in atmospheric surface layer (ASL) experiments. The ergodic theorem of stationary random processes is introduced to analyse and verify the ergodicity of atmospheric turbulence measured using the ed...

Aubinet, M., Vesala, T., and Papale, D.: Eddy covariance, a practical guide to measurement and data analysis, Springer, Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London, New York, 438 pp., 2012.; Birkhoff, G. D.: Proof of the ergodic theorem, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA. 18, 656–660, 1931.; Boltzmann, L.: Analytischer beweis des zweiten Haubtsatzes der mechanischen Wärmetheorie aus den Sätzen über das Gleichgewicht der lebendigen Kraft, Wiener Berichte, 63, in: WAI, paper 20, 712–732, 1871.;...

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Oxalic Acid as a Heterogeneous Ice Nucleus in the Upper Tropospher...

By: T. Peter; T. Koop; B. P. Luo; U. Lohmann; C. Marcolli; P. K. Hudson; S. Fueglistaler; D. S. Thomson; A. A. Zardini; B. Zobrist; T. Corti; D. J. Cziczo; U. K. Krieger; D. M. Murphy

Description: Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Heterogeneous ice freezing points of aqueous solutions containing various immersed solid dicarboxylic acids (oxalic, adipic, succinic, phthalic and fumaric) have been measured with a differential scanning calorimeter. The results show that only the dihydrate of oxalic acid (OAD) acts as a heterogeneous ice nucleus, with an increase in freezing temperature between 2 and 5 K d...

Apelblat, A. and Manzurola, E.: Solubility of malonic, oxalic, succinic, adipic, malic, citric, and tartaric acids in water from 278.15 to 338.15 K, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 19, 317–320, 1987.; Baker, M B.: Cloud microphysics and climate, Science, 276, 1072–1078, 1997.; Bertram, A K., Koop, T., Molina, L T., and Molina, M J.: Ice formation in (NH$_4$)$_2$SO$_4$-H$_2$O particles, J. Phys. Chem. A, 104, 584–588, 2000.; Archuleta, C M., DeMott, P J., and Kreidenweis, S M.: Ice ...

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Validation of Martilli's Urban Boundary Layer Scheme with Measurem...

By: G. Schayes; R. Hamdi

Description: Royal Meteorological Institute, Avenue Circulaire, 3, 1180 Brussels, Belgium. Martilli's urban parameterization scheme is improved and implemented in a mesoscale model in order to take into account the typical effects of a real city on the air temperature near the ground and on the surface exchange fluxes. The mesoscale model is run on a single column using atmospheric data and radiation recorded above roof level as forcing. Here, the authors validate M...

Bornstein, R. D.: Mean diurnal circulation and Thermodynamic Evolution of Urban Boundary Layers, Modelling the Urban Boundary Layer, published by American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 53–94, 1987.; Brown, M. and Williams, M.: An urban canopy parameterization for mesoscale meteorological models, AMS 2nd Urban Env. Symp., Albuquerque, NM, 1998.; Brown, M.: Urban parameterizations for mesoscale meteorological models, Mesoscale Atmospheric dispersion, edited by: Boybe...

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Variability of Cirrus Clouds in a Convective Outflow During the Hi...

By: E. Orlandi; V. Marécal; F. Cairo; G. Di Donfrancesco; F. Fierli; M. Zampieri; G. Durry

Description: Istituto di Scienze dell'Atmosfera e del Clima, CNR, Italy. Light-weight microlidar and water vapour measurements were taken on-board a stratospheric balloon during the HIBISCUS 2004 campaign, held in Bauru, Brazil (49° W, 22° S). Cirrus clouds were observed throughout the flight between 12 and 15 km height with a high mesoscale variability in optical and microphysical properties. It was found that the cirrus clouds were composed of different layers cha...

Ackerman, T. P., Liou, K.-N., Valero P. J., and Pfister L.: Heating rates in tropical anvils, J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 1606–1623, 1988.; Buzzi, A. and Foschini, L.: Mesoscale meteorological features associated with heavy precipitation in the southern Alpine region, Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 72, 131–146, 2000.; Corti T., Luo, B. P., Fu, Q., Vomel, H., and Peter, T.: The impact of cirrus clouds on tropical troposphere-to-stratosphere transport, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 2539–2547, 2...

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Gas/Particle Partitioning of Water-soluble Organic Aerosol in Atla...

By: C. J. Hennigan; M. H. Bergin; A. G. Russell; A. Nenes; R. J. Weber

Description: School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Georgia, USA. Gas and particle-phase organic carbon compounds soluble in water (e.g., WSOC) were measured simultaneously in Atlanta throughout the summer of 2007 to investigate gas/particle partitioning of ambient secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Previous studies have established that, in the absence of biomass burning, particulate WSOC (WSOCp) is mainly fro...

Favez, O., Sciare, J., Cachier, H., Alfaro, S. C., and Abdelwahab, M. M.: Significant formation of water-insoluble secondary organic aerosols in semi-arid urban environment, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35(15), 2008.; Fisseha, R., Dommen, J., Gaeggeler, K., Weingartner, E., Samburova, V., Kalberer, M., and Baltensperger, U.: Online gas and aerosol measurement of water soluble carboxylic acids in Zurich, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 111(D12), 2006.; Fountoukis, C. and Nenes, A.: ISOR...

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High Variability of the Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation Potential of ...

By: H. Saathoff; O. Möhler; M. Schnaiter; R. Wagner; T. Leisner

Description: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe, Germany. The heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of airborne oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate particles in the deposition and condensation mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 244 and 228 K. Previous laboratory studies ha...

Apelblat, A. and Manzurola, E.: Solubility of Oxalic, Malonic, Succinic, Adipic, Maleic, Malic, Citric, and Tartaric Acids in Water from 278.15 K to 338.15 K, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 19, 317–320, 1987.; Arnott, W. P., Dong, Y. Y., and Hallett, J.: Extinction Efficiency in the Infrared (2-18 μm) of Laboratory Ice Clouds - Observations of Scattering Minima in the Christiansen Bands of Ice, Appl. Optics, 34, 541–551, 1995.; Baustian, K. J., Wise, M. E., and Tolbert, M. A.: Dep...

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Different Photolysis Kinetics at the Surface of Frozen Freshwater ...

By: N.-o. A. Kwamena; T. F. Kahan; D. J. Donaldson

Description: Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 Saint George Street, Toronto, M5S 3H6 Ontario, Canada. The presence of solutes such as sodium halide salts can greatly alter the physical nature of air-ice interfaces. In this work, we studied the effects of sodium chloride and sodium bromide on the photolysis kinetics of harmine, an aromatic organic compound, in aqueous solution and at the surface of frozen salt solutions. Harmine photolysis is much fas...

Akinfiev, N. N., Mironenko, M. V., and Grant, S. A.: Thermodynamic properties of NaCl solutions at subzero temperatures, J. Solut. Chem., 30, 1065–1080, 2001.; Ardura, D., Kahan, T. F., and Donaldson, D. J.: Self-association of naphthalene at the air-ice interface, J. Phys. Chem. A, 113, 7353–7359, 2009.; Carignano, M. A., Shepson, P. B., and Szleifer, I.: Ions at the ice/vapor interface, Chem. Phys. Lett., 436, 99–103, 2007.; Chu, L. and Anastasio, C.: Quantum yields of...

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Evaluated Kinetic and Photochemical Data for Atmospheric Chemistry...

By: M. E. Jenkin; M. J. Rossi; R. A. Cox; A. Mellouki; J. N. Crowley; J. Troe; M. Ammann; T. J. Wallington

Description: Laboratory of Radiochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, OFLB 103, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland. This article, the sixth in the ACP journal series, presents data evaluated by the IUPAC Task Group on Atmospheric Chemical Kinetic Data Evaluation. It covers the heterogeneous processes involving liquid particles present in the atmosphere, for which uptake coefficients and adsorption parameters have been presented on the IUPAC website s...

Ammann, M., Pöschl, U., and Rudich, Y.: Effects of reversible adsorption and Langmuir-Hinshelwood surface reactions on gas uptake by atmospheric particles, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 5, 351–356, 2003.; Ammann, M. and Pöschl, U.: Kinetic model framework for aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions – Part 2: Exemplary practical applications and numerical simulations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 6025–6045, ...

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H2O and Hcl Trace Gas Kinetics on Crystalline and Amorphous Hcl Hy...

By: R. Iannarelli; M. J. Rossi

Description: Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry (LAC), Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), PSI Villigen, 5232, Switzerland. In this laboratory study, H2O ice films of 1 to 2 Μm thickness have been used as surrogates for ice particles at atmospherically relevant conditions in a stirred flow reactor (SFR) to measure the kinetics of evaporation and condensation of HCl and H2O on crystalline and amorphous HCl hydrates. A multidiagnostic approach h...

Abbatt, J. P. D., Beyer, K. D., Fucaloro, A. F., McMahon, J. R., Wooldridge, P. J., Zhang, R., and Molina, M. J.: Interaction of HCl vapor with water-ice: implications for the stratosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 15819–15826, 1992.; Broker, W. and Mossman, A. L.: Matheson Gas Data Book, 6th edn., Matheson Gas Products Inc., Lyndhurst, NJ, 1980.; Banham, S. F., Sodeau, J. R., Horn, A. B., McCoustra, M. R. S., and Chesters, M. A.: Adsorption and ionization of HCl on an ice ...

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Is There a Stratospheric Fountain? : Volume 7, Issue 3 (25/06/2007)

By: G. Held; J.-p. Pommereau

Description: Service d'Aéronomie, CNRS, Verrières le Buisson, France. The impact of convection on the thermal structure of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) was investigated from a series of four daily radiosonde ascents and weather S-band radar observations carried out during the HIBISCUS campaign in the South Atlantic Convergence Zone in Southeast Brazil in February 2004. The temperature profiles display a large impact of convective activity on the thermal struc...

Danielsen, E. F.: A dehydration mechanism for the stratosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 9, 605–608, 1982.; Alcala, C. M. and Dessler, A. E : Observations of deep convection in the tropics using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4792, doi:10.1029/2002/D002457, 2002; Chaboureau, J.-P., Cammas, J.-P. Duron, J., Mascart, P. J. , Sitnikov, N. M., and Voessing, H.-J.: A numerical study of cross-tropopause transport by conve...

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Increase of the Aerosol Hygroscopicity by Aqueous Mixing in a Meso...

By: P. Tulet; L. Gomes; A. Matsuki; S. Crumeyrolle; A. Schwarzenboeck; K. Crahan

Description: GAME/CNRM,METEO-FRANCE – CNRS, Toulouse, France. Aerosol properties were measured during an airborne campaign experiment that took place in July 2006 in West Africa within the framework of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA). The goal of the present study was to determine the main microphysical processes that affect the aerosols during the passage of a mesoscale convective system (MCS) over the region of Niamey in Niger. A main differe...

Bechtold, P., Bazile, E., Guichard, F., Mascart, P., and Richard, E.: A mass-flux convection scheme for regional and global models, Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 127, 869–886, 2001.; Bougeault, P. and Lacarrére, P.: Parametrization of orography-induced turbulence in a meso-beta model, Mon. Wea. Rev., 117, 1872–1890, 1989.; Boone, A. and deRosnay, P.: Towards the improved understanding of land-surface processes and coupling with the atmosphere over west africa, iLEAPS Newl...

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Aerosol Hygroscopicity in the Marine Atmosphere: a Closure Study U...

By: R. C. Flagan; A. Sorooshian; S. M. Murphy; S. P. Hersey; J. H. Seinfeld

Description: Departments of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Science and Engineering, Caltech, 1200 E. California Blvd, Pasadena, CA, 91125, USA. We have conducted the first closure study to couple high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) composition data with size-resolved, multiple-RH, high-time-resolution hygroscopic growth factor (GF) measurements from the differential aerosol sizing and hygroscopicity spectrometer probe (DASH-SP). These data ...

Carrico, C M., Rood, M J., and Ogren, J A.: Aerosol light scattering properties at Cape Grim, Tasmania, during the First Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE 1), J. Geophys. Res., 103, 16 565–16 574, 1998.; Carrico, C M., Rood, M J., Ogren, J A., Neususs, C., Wiedensohler, A., and Heintzenberg, J.: Aerosol optical properties at Sagres, Portugal during ACE-2, Tellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 52, 694–715, 2000.; Choi, M Y. and Chan, C K.: Continuous m...

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Observation of Nitrate Coatings on Atmospheric Mineral Dust Partic...

By: L. Y. Shao; W. J. Li

Description: State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining & Department of Resources and Earth Science, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing, China. Nitrate compounds have recently received much attention because of their ability to alter the hygroscopic properties and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of mineral dust particles in the atmosphere. However, very little is known about specific characteristics of nitrate-coated mineral parti...

Jacob, D. J.: Heterogeneous chemistry and tropospheric ozone, Atmos. Environ., 34, 2131–2159, 2000.; Borensen, C., Kirchner, U., Scheer, V., Vogt, R., and Zellner, R.: Mechanism and kinetics of the reactions of NO2 or HNO3 with alumina as a mineral dust model compound, J. Phys. Chem. A, 104, 5036–5045, 2000.; Chan, C. K. and Yao, X.: Air pollution in mega cities in China, Atmos. Environ., 42, 1–42, 2008.; Al-Hosney, H. A. and Grassian, V. H.: Water,...

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Environment and Morphology of Mesoscale Convective Systems Associa...

By: S.-m. Jang; C.-c. Wang; C.-h. You; J.-h. Jeong; D.-i. Lee; M. Jang

Description: Department of Environmental Atmospheric Sciences, Pukyong National University, Busan, South Korea. To understand the different environment and morphology for heavy rainfall during 9–10 July 2007, over the Korean Peninsula, mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) that accompanied the Changma front in two different regions were investigated. The sub-synoptic conditions were analysed using mesoscale analysis data (MANAL), reanalysis data, weather charts and Mul...

Akiyama, T.: A medium-scale cloud cluster in a Baiu front. Part I: Evolution process and a fine structure, J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan, 62, 485–504, 1984a.; Akiyama, T.: A medium-scale cloud cluster in a Baiu front. Part II: Thermal and kinematics fields and heat budget, J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan, 62, 505–520, 1984b.; Bluestein, H. B.: Synoptic-Dynamic Meteorology in Midlatitudes, vol. 2, Oxford University Press, 594, 1993.; Bluestein, H. B. and Jain, M. H.: Formation of mesos...

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X-ray Fluorescence Mapping of Mercury on Suspended Mineral Particl...

By: B. Mishra; W. Wang; C. Miller; S. C. Brooks; B. Lai; K. M. Kemner; B. Gu; L. Liang

Description: Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA. Mercury (Hg) bioavailability and geochemical cycling is affected by its partitioning between the aqueous and particulate phases. We applied a synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microprobe to visualize and quantify directly the spatial localization of Hg and its correlations with other elements of interest on suspended particles from a Hg-contaminated freshw...

Adams, R. M., Twiss, M. R., and Driscoll, C. T.: Patterns of mercury accumulation among seston in lakes of the Adirondack Mountains, New York, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, 4836–4842, 2009.; Balogh, S. J., Swain, E. B., and Nollet, Y. H.: Characteristics of mercury speciation in Minnesota rivers and streams, Environ. Pollut., 154, 3–11, 2008.; Barkay, T. and Wagner-Dobler, I.: Microbial transformations of mercury: potentials, challenges, and achievements in controlling mer...

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Modelling the Dynamic Chemical Interactions of Atmospheric Ammonia...

By: J. W. Erisman; M. Mattsson; F. Gresens; E. Nemitz; P. A. C. Jongejan; J. Burkhardt; T. Weidinger; C. R. Flechard; M. A. Sutton; R. Meszaros

Description: Institute for Crop Science and Resource Conservation, INRES-PE, University of Bonn, Karlrobert-Kreiten-Str. 13, 53115 Bonn, Germany. Ammonia exchange fluxes between grassland and the atmosphere were modelled on the basis of stomatal compensation points and leaf surface chemistry, and compared with measured fluxes during the GRAMINAE intensive measurement campaign in spring 2000 near Braunschweig, Germany. Leaf wetness and dew chemistry in grassland were ...

Adema, E. H. and Heeres, P.: Dry deposition of sulphur dioxide and ammonia on wet surfaces and the surface oxidation kinetics of bisulphite, Atmos. Environ., 29, 1091–1103, 1995.; Altimir, N., Kolari, P., Tuovinen, J.-P., Vesala, T., Bäck, J., Suni, T., Kulmala, M., and Hari, P., Biogeosciences, 3, 209–228, 2006.; Andrews, J. H. and Harris, R. F.: The ecology and biogeography of microorganisms on plant surfaces, Annu. Rev. Phytopathol., 38, 145–180, 2000.; Barfield, B. J...

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Modelling Oxygen Isotopes in the University of Victoria Earth Syst...

By: K. J. Meissner; M. Eby; A. J. Weaver; C. E. Brennan

Description: University of Victoria School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Implementing oxygen isotopes (H218O, H216O) in coupled climate models provides both an important test of the individual model's hydrological cycle, and a powerful tool to mechanistically explore past climate changes while producing results directly comparable to isotope proxy records. Here we describe the addition of ...

Dansgaard, W.: Stable isotopes in precipitation, Tellus, 16, 436–468, 1964.; Bryan, K. and Lewis, L.: A water mass model of the world ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 84, 311–337, 1979.; Adkins, J. F. and Schrag, D. P. : Pore fluid constraints on deep ocean temperature and salinity during the last glacial maximum, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 771–774, 2001.; Craig, H. and Gordon, L. I.: Deuterium and oxygen-18 variations in the ocean and marine atmosphere, in: Stable Isotopes in Oce...

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Outcomes of the 9Th Egu Plinius Conference on Mediterranean Storms...

By: G. Roth; A. Mugnai; F. Guzzetti

Description: Istituto di Scienze dell'Atmosfera e del Clima, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Roma, Italy. No abstract available.

Alfieri, L., Claps, P., and Laio, F.: Time-dependent Z-R relationships for estimating rainfall fields from radar measurements, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 10, 149–158, 2010.; Barnolas, M., Atencia, A., Llasat, M. C., and Rigo, T.: Characterization of a Mediterranean flash flood event using rain gauges, radar, GIS and lightning data, Adv. Geosci., 17, 35–41, 2008.; Bertotti, L. and Cavaleri, L.: The predictability of the Voyager accident, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci.,...

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