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Mathematical Statistics


Mathematical statistics is the study of statistics from a mathematical standpoint, using probability theory as well as other branches of mathematics such as linear algebra and analysis. The term "mathematical statistics" is closely related to the term "statistical theory" but also embraces modelling for actuarial science and non-statistical probability theory, particularly in Scandinavia.

 
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Seasonal Changes in the Soil Hydrological and Erosive Response Dep...

By: J. D. Ruiz-sinoga; M. A. Quesada; J. F. Martínez-murillo; M. A. Gabarrón-galeote

Description: George Lemaître Centre for Earth and Climate Research, Earth & Life Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Place Louis Pasteur 3, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Mediterranean areas are characterized by a strong spatial variability that makes the soil hydrological response highly complex. Moreover, Mediterranean climate has marked seasons that provoke dramatic changes on soil properties determining the runoff rates, such as soil water content or soi...

Ahn, S., Doerr, S. H., Douglas, P., Bryant, R., Hamlett, C. A. E., McHale, G., Newton, M. I., and Shirtcliffe, N. J.: Effects of hydrophobicity on splash erosion of model soil particles by a single water drop impact, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 38, 1225–1233, 2013.; Aronne, G. and De Micco, V.: Seasonal dimorphism in the Mediterranean Cistus incanus L. subsp. incanus, Ann. Bot., 87, 789–794, 2001.; An, S.-S., Darboux, F., and Cheng, M.: Revegetation as an efficient means of...

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Design Impact and Significance of Non-stationarity of Variance in ...

By: J. J. O'Sullivan; A. O'Connor; M. Al Saji

Description: Earth Institute and School of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. Stationarity in hydro-meteorological records is often investigated through an assessment of the mean value of the tested parameter. This is arguably insufficient for capturing fully the non-stationarity signal, and parameter variance is an equally important indicator. This study applied the Mann-Kendall linear and Mann-Whitney-Wilcox...

Anderson, T. and Darling, D.: Asymptotic theory of certain goodness of fit criteria based on stochastic processes, Ann. Math. Stat., 23, 193–212, 1952.; Arnell, N. W.: The effect of climate change on hydrological regimes in Europe: a continental perspective, Glob. Environ. Chang., 9, 5–23, 1999.; Burn, D. H. and Hag Elnur, M. a.: Detection of hydrologic trends and variability, J. Hydrol., 255, 107–122, 2002.; Chandler, R. E.: Analysis of rainfall variability using genera...

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Coffee Husk Mulch on Soil Erosion and Runoff: Experiences Under Ra...

By: S. J. Quizembe; S. Ibáñez-asensio; H. Moreno-ramón

Description: Department of Plant Production, Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain. The high erosion rates found in the agriculture land make valuable the use of mulches to control the soil and water losses. Coffee husk (Coffee canephora var. robusta) can be one of those mulches. This paper evaluates how to apply the mulch in order to obtain, with the same doses, the best effectiveness. An experimental factorial design 4 × 3 × 2 with two re...

Abdelkadir, A. and Yimer, F.: Soil water property variations in three adjacent land use types in the Rift Valley area of Ethiopia, J. Arid Environ., 75, 1067–1071, 2011.; Bekalo, S. A. and Reinhart, H- W.: Fibers of coffee husk and hulls for the production of particleboard, Mater. Struct., 43, 1049–1060, 2010.; Adekalu, K. O., Okunade, D. A., and Osunbitan, J. A.: Compaction and mulching effects on soil loss and runoff from two southwestern Nigeria agriculture soils, Geo...

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Polyphase Evolution of Pelagonia (Northern Greece) Revealed by Geo...

By: M. G. Fellin; J.-p. Burg; F. L. Schenker

Description: Department of Earth Sciences, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 5, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland. The Pelagonian zone, between the External Hellenides/Cyclades to the west and the Axios/Vardar/Almopia zone (AVAZ) and Rhodope to the east, was involved in late Early Cretaceous and in Late Cretaceous-Eocene orogenic events whose duration are still controversial. This work constrains their late thermal imprints. New and previously published zircon (ZFT) and apatit...

Ketcham, R. A.: Forward and inverse modeling of low-temperature thermochronometry data, Rev. Mineral. Geochem., 58, 275–314, 2005.; Brunn, J.: Contribution à l'étude Géologique du Pinde septentrional et d'une partie de la Macédoine Occidentale, Ann. Geol. Pays. Hellen., 7, 1–358, 1956.; Anders, B., Reischmann, T., and Kostopoulos, D.: Zircon geochronology of basement rocks from the Pelagonian Zone, Greece: constraints on the pre-Alpine evolution of the westernmost Intern...

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Organic Carbon, Water Repellency and Soil Stability to Slaking Und...

By: L. M. Zavala; Á. J. Gordillo-rivero; A. Cerdà; A. Jordán; J. García-moreno

Description: MED_Soil Research Group, Department of Crystallography, Mineralogy and Agricultural Chemistry, University of Seville, 1, 41012, Sevilla, Spain. This research studies the distribution of organic C and intensity of water repellency in soil aggregates with different size and in the interior of aggregates from Mediterranean soils under different crops (apricot, citrus and wheat) and management (conventional tilling and no tilling/mulching). For this, undistu...

Amelung, W. and Zech, W.: Organic species in ped surface and core fractions along a climosequence in the prairie, North America. Geoderma, 74, 193–206, 1996.; Benito, E., Santiago, J. L., de Blas, E., and Varela, M. E.: Deforestation of water-repellent soils in Galicia (NW Spain): effects on surface runoff and erosion under simulated rainfall, Earth Surf. Process. Landf., 28, 145–155, 2003.; Bisdom, E. B. A., Dekker, L. W., and Schoute, J. F. Th.: Water repellency of sie...

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Scale-dependent Measurement and Analysis of Ground Surface Tempera...

By: S. Gruber; J. Fiddes; M. Keller; S. Gubler

Description: Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Switzerland. Measurements of environmental variables are often used to validate and calibrate physically-based models. Depending on their application, the models are used at different scales, ranging from few meters to tens of kilometers. Environmental variables can vary strongly within the grid cells of these models. Validating a model with a single measurement is therefore delicate and susc...

Juliussen, H. and Humlum, O.: Thermal regime of openwork block fields on the mountains {E}laahogna and {S}olen, central-eastern {N}orway, Permafrost Periglac., 19, 1–18, doi:10.1002/ppp.607, 2008.; Keller, F.: Automated mapping of mountain permafrost using the program PERMAKART within the Geographical Information System ARC/INFO, Permafrost Periglac., 3, 133–138, 1992.; Keller, F. and Gubler, H. U.: Interaction between snow c...

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A Method for Sea Ice Thickness and Concentration Analysis Based on...

By: T. Vihma; B. Cheng; M. Arkett; T. Carrieres; J. Karvonen

Description: Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Helsinki, PB 503, 00101, Finland. An analysis of ice thickness distribution is a challenge, particularly in a seasonal sea ice zone with a strongly dynamic ice motion field, such as the Gulf of St. Lawrence off Canada. We present a novel automated method for ice concentration and thickness analysis combining modeling of sea ice thermodynamics and detection of ice motion on the basis of space-borne Synthetic Apertu...

Andersen, S., Tonboe, R., Kaleschke, L., and Heygster, G.: Intercomparison of passive microwave sea ice concentration retrievals over the high-concentration Arctic sea ice, J. Geophys. Res., 112, C08004, doi:10.1029/2006JC003543, 2007.; Astola, J., Haavisto, P., and Neuvo, Y.: Vector median filters, P. IEEE, 78, 678–689, 1990.; Bitz, C. M., Holland, M. M., Weaver, A. J., and Eby, M.: Simulating the ice-thickness distribu...

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Multi-scale Validation of a New Soil Freezing Scheme for a Land-su...

By: G. Krinner; P. Ciais; J. Polcher; C. Legout; I. Gouttevin

Description: AgroParisTech, ENGREF, 19 av. du Maine, 75015 Paris, France. Soil freezing is a major feature of boreal regions with substantial impact on climate. The present paper describes the implementation of the thermal and hydrological effects of soil freezing in the land surface model ORCHIDEE, which includes a physical description of continental hydrology. The new soil freezing scheme is evaluated against analytical solutions and in-situ observations at a vari...

Abu-Hamdeh, N. and Reeder, R.: Soil thermal conductivity: Effects of density, moisture, salt concentration, and organic matter, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 64, 1285–1290, 2000.; Adam, J. and Lettenmaier, D.: Adjustment of global gridded precipitation for systematic bias, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4257, doi:10.1029/2002JD002499, 2003.; Alexeev, V., Nicolsky, D., Romanovsky, V., and Lawrence, D.: An evaluation of deep soil configu...

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Modelling and Mapping Climate Change Impacts on Permafrost at High...

By: R. Fraser; X. Wang; Y. Zhang; I. Olthof; W. Chen; S. Ponomarenko; D. McLennan; W. Wu

Description: Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0Y7, Canada. Most spatial modelling of climate change impacts on permafrost has been conducted at half-degree latitude/longitude or coarser spatial resolution. At such coarse resolution, topographic effects on insolation cannot be considered accurately and the results are not suitable for land-use planning and ecological assessment. Here we mapped climate change impacts on ...

ACIA: Impact of a Warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Cambridge University Press, 1042 pp., 2005.; Agriculture Canada Expert Committee on Soil Survey: The Canadian System of Soil Classification, 2nd Edn., Agriculture Canada, Publication 1646, Ottawa, Canada, 164 pp., 1987.; Anisimov, O. and Reneva, S.: Permafrost and changing climate: The Russian perspective, Ambio, 35, 169–175, 2006.; Boland, J., Ridley, B., and Brown, B.: Models of diffuse solar radiation...

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Ice and Ais: Ship Speed Data and Sea Ice Forecasts in the Baltic S...

By: U. Löptien; L. Axell

Description: GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany. The Baltic Sea is a seasonally ice-covered marginal sea located in a densely populated area in northern Europe. Severe sea ice conditions have the potential to hinder the intense ship traffic considerably. Thus, sea ice fore- and nowcasts are regularly provided by the national weather services. Typically, the forecast comprises several ice properties that are di...

Axell, L.: BSRA-15: A Baltic Sea Reanalysis 1990–2004, Reports Oceanography 45, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden, 2013.; Berking, B.: Potential and benefits of AIS to Ships and Maritime Administration, WMU J. Mar. Affairs, 2, 61–78, doi:10.1007/BF03195034, 2003.; Funkquist, L. and Kleine, E.: HIROMB: An introduction to HIROMB, an operational baroclinic model for the Baltic Sea, Report O...

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The Influence of Surface Characteristics, Topography and Continent...

By: M. Geertsema; S. Gruber; V. Foord; A. Hasler; J. Noetzli

Description: Ministry of Forest, Land and Natural Resources Operation of British Columbia, 1044 Fifth Avenue, Prince George, BC V2L 5G4, Canada. Thermal and surface offsets describe mean annual ground temperature relative to mean annual air temperature, and for permafrost modelling they are often predicted as a function of surface characteristics and topography. As macroclimatic conditions influence the effectiveness of the underlying processes, knowledge of surface-...

Allen, S. K., Gruber, S., and Owens, I. F.: Exploring steep bedrock permafrost and its relation- ship with recent slope failures in the Southern Alps of New Zealand, Permafrost Periglac., 20, 345–356, 2009.; Boeckli, L., Brenning, A., Gruber, S., and Noetzli, J.: A statistical approach to modelling permafrost distribution in the European Alps or similar mountain ranges, The Cryosphere, 6, 125–140, doi:10.5194/tc-6-125-2012<...

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Independent Evaluation of the Snodas Snow Depth Product Using Regi...

By: A. Winstral; H.-p. Marshall; D. Cline; K. Elder; A. Hedrick; S. Yueh

Description: Boise State University, Center for Geophysical Investigation of the Shallow Subsurface, Boise, ID 83725, USA. Repeated light detection and ranging (lidar) surveys are quickly becoming the de facto method for measuring spatial variability of montane snowpacks at high resolution. This study examines the potential of a 750 km2 lidar-derived data set of snow depths, collected during the 2007 northern Colorado Cold Lands Processes Experiment (CLPX-...

Baltsavias, E.: Airborne laser scanning: basic relations and formulas, ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens., 54, 199–214, 1999.; Anderson, B. T.: Spatial Distribution and Evolution of a Seasonal Snowpack in Complex Terrain: An Evaluation of the SNODAS Modeling Product, Masters thesis, Boise State University, Boise, Idaho, USA, 2011.; Anderton, S. P., White, S. M., and Alvera, B.: Evaluation of spatial variability in snow water equivalent for a high mountain catchment, Hydro...

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Regional Melt-pond Fraction and Albedo of Thin Arctic First-year D...

By: S. A. Divina; C. A. Pedersen; S. R. Hudson; M. A. Granskog; T. I. Karlsen; D. V. Divine; A. H. H. Renner; S. Gerland

Description: Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, 9296 Tromsø, Norway. The paper presents a case study of the regional (≈150 km) morphological and optical properties of a relatively thin, 70–90 cm modal thickness, first-year Arctic sea ice pack in an advanced stage of melt. The study combines in situ broadband albedo measurements representative of the four main surface types (bare ice, dark melt ponds, bright melt ponds and open water) and images acquired by a he...

Björk, G., Stranne, C., and Borenäs, K.: The Sensitivity of the Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Thickness and Its Dependence on the Surface Albedo Parameterization, J. Climate, 26, 1355–1370, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00085.1, 2013.; Castro-Morales, K., Kauker, F., Losch, M., Hendricks, S., Riemann-Campe, K., and Gerdes, R.: Sensitivity of simulated Arctic sea ice to realistic ice thickness distributions and snow parameterizations...

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Multi-scale Validation of a New Soil Freezing Scheme for a Land-su...

By: P. Ciais; G. Krinner; J. Polcher; I. Gouttevin; C. Legout

Description: Laboratoire de Glaciologie et de Géophysique de l'Environnement (LGGE), UMR5183, CNRS – Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1, 54 rue Molière, BP96, 38402 St Martin d'Hères, France. Soil freezing is a major feature of boreal regions with substantial impact on climate. The present paper describes the implementation of the thermal and hydrological effects of soil freezing in the land surface model ORCHIDEE, which includes a physical description of continen...

Anisimov, O. and Nelson, F.: Permafrost zonation and climate change in the northern hemisphere: results from transient general circulation models, Climatic Change, 35, 241–258, doi:10.1023/A:1005315409698, 1997.; Arnell, N.: Implications of climate change for freshwater inflows to the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D07105, doi:10.1029/2004JD005348, 2005.; Barry,...

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A Method for Sea Ice Thickness and Concentration Analysis Based on...

By: M. Arkett; B. Cheng; T. Vihma; J. Karvonen; T. Carrieres

Description: Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Helsinki, PB 503, 00101, Finland. An analysis of ice thickness distribution is a challenge, particularly in a seasonal sea ice zone with strongly dynamic ice motion field, such as the Gulf of St. Lawrence off Canada. We present a method for ice concentration and thickness analysis combining modelling of sea ice thermodynamics and detection of ice motion on the basis of space-borne Synthetic Aperture...

Astola, J., Haavisto, P., and Neuvo, Y.: Vector median filters, P. IEEE, 78, 678–689, 1990.; Andersen, S., Tonboe, R., Kaleschke, L., and Heygster, G.: Intercomparison of passive microwave sea ice concentration retrievals over the high-concentration Arctic sea ice, J. Geophys. Res., 112, C08004, doi:10.1029/2006JC003543, 2007.; Biazzi, B., Alparone, L., Baronti, S., and Borri, G.: Pyramid-based multi-resolution adaptive ...

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Regional Albedo of Arctic First-year Drift Ice in Advanced Stages ...

By: M. A. Granskog; S. R. Hudson; C. A. Pedersen; T. I. Karlsen; D. V. Divine; S. Gerland; S. A. Divina

Description: Norwegian Polar Institute, FRAM Centre, 9296 Tromsø, Norway. The paper presents a case study of the regional (≈ 150 km) broadband albedo of first year Arctic sea ice in advanced stages of melt, estimated from a combination of in situ albedo measurements and aerial imagery. The data were collected during the eight day ICE12 drift experiment carried out by the Norwegian Polar Institute in the Arctic north of Svalbard at 82.3° N f...

Conover, W.: Practical Nonparametric Statistics, Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics, 3rd Edn., Wiley, New York, 1999.; Curry, J. A., Schramm, J. L., and Ebert, E. E.: Sea ice-albedo climate feedback mechanism, J. Climate, 8, 240–247, 2.0.CO;2>doi:10.1175/1520-0442(1995)008<0240:SIACFM>2.0.CO;2, 1995.; Derksen, C., Piwowar, J., and LeDrew, E.: Sea-ice melt-pond fraction as determined from low lev...

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Ice and Ais: Ship Speed Data and Sea Ice Forecasts in the Baltic S...

By: U. Löptien; L. Axell

Description: GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany. The Baltic Sea is a seasonally ice covered marginal sea located in a densely populated area in northern Europe. Severe sea ice conditions have the potential to hinder the intense ship traffic considerably. Thus, sea ice fore- and nowcasts are regularly provided by the national weather services. Typically, several ice properties are allocated, but their actual us...

Axell, L.: BSRA-15: A Baltic Sea Reanalysis 1990–2004, Reports Oceanography 45, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden, 1–66, 2013.; Berking, B.: Potential and benefits of AIS to ships and maritime administration, WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs, 2, 61–78, doi:10.1007/BF03195034, 2003.; Funkquist, L. and Kleine, E.: HIROMB: An introduction to HIROMB, an operational baroclinic model for the Ba...

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The Influence of Surface Characteristics, Topography, and Continen...

By: V. Foord; S. Gruber; J. Noetzli; A. Hasler; M. Geertsema

Description: Ministry of Forest, Land and Natural Resources Operation of British Columbia, 1044 Fifth Avenue, Prince George BC V2L 5G4, Canada. Thermal offset and surface offset are terms that describe the deviation of the mean annual ground temperature from the mean annual air temperature. These offsets are controlled by surface characteristics and topo-climatic factors on a micro- and meso-scales. Macro-climatic conditions may, however, influence the effectiv...

Allen, S. K., Gruber, S., and Owens, I. F.: Exploring steep bedrock permafrost and its relationship with recent slope failures in the Southern Alps of New Zealand, Permafrost Periglac., 20, 345–356, 2009.; Boeckli, L., Brenning, A., Gruber, S., and Noetzli, J.: A statistical approach to modelling permafrost distribution in the European Alps or similar mountain ranges, The Cryosphere, 6, 125–140, doi:10.5194/tc-6-125-2012

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Thermal Energy in Dry Snow Avalanches : Volume 8, Issue 6 (20/11/2014)

By: B. Sovilla; M. Lehning; W. Steinkogler

Description: WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF, Davos Dorf, Switzerland. Avalanches can exhibit many different flow regimes from powder clouds to slush flows. Flow regimes are largely controlled by the properties of the snow released and entrained along the path. Recent investigations showed the temperature of the moving snow to be one of the most important factors controlling the mobility of the flow. The temperature of an avalanche is determin...

Armstrong, R. L. and Brun, E.: Snow and Climate: Physical Processes, Surface Energy Exchange and Modeling, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 222 pp., 2008.; Bartelt, P., Bühler, Y., Buser, O., Christen, M., and Meier, L.: Modeling mass-dependent flow regime transitions to predict the stopping and depositional behavior of snow avalanches, J. Geophys. Res., 117, doi:10.1029/2010JF001957, online first, 2012.; Brenn...

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Effects of Within-patch Heterogeneity on Connectivity in Pond-bree...

By: M.-b. Pontoppidan; G. Nachman

Description: Section for Ecology and Evolution, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. The metapopulation framework presumes the habitat of a local population to be continuous and homogenous, and patch area is often used as a proxy for population size. Many populations of pond-breeding amphibians are assumed to follow metapopulation dynamics, and connectivity is mostly measured between breeding ponds. However...

Baker, J. M. R. and Halliday, T. R.: Amphibian colonization of new ponds in an agricultural landscape, Herpetol. J., 9, 55–63, 1999.; Bender, D. J. and Fahrig, L.: Matrix structure obscures the relationship between interpatch movement and patch size and isolation, Ecology, 86, 1023–1033, 2005.; Bowman, J., Cappuccino, N., and Fahrig, L.: Patch size and population density: the effect of immigration behavior, Conserv. Ecol., 6, 9, 2002.; Chin, K. S. and Taylor, P. D.: Inte...

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