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Banking


A system of trading in money which involved safeguarding deposits and making funds available for borrowers, banking developed in the Middle Ages in response to the growing need for credit in commerce. The lending functions of banks were undertaken in England by money- lenders. Until their expulsion by Edward I in 1291, the most important money-lenders were Jews. They were replaced by Italian merchants who had papal dispensations to lend money at interest. In the 13th cent. credit was essential to finance commerce and major projects.

 
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Measuring Port Performance Patrick Fourgeaud the World Bank

By: The World Bank

Economics

This note proposes a more customized approach of indicators used to monitor port performance, forecast development and set targets in port sector projects. The main points are that, in most cases, it is not possible to determine benchmarks which would be applicable for any port, and that all expressions of port performance do not address the same requirements. Therefore, carefully identifying problems to be monitored and taking into account the main characteristics of th...

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The Lending Process in Infrastructure Transactions : The World Ban...

By: The World Bank

Economics

Today, there is practically no such thing as purely public infrastructure projects in countries organized under liberal market economy principles. In most cases, so called public projects include a strong dose of private intervention. For instance, infrastructure is built by private contractors; operational equipment is furnished or sold by private firms. Symmetrically, purely private projects are still constrained, controlled, regulated by public organizations or entiti...

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Leveraging Trade for Development the World Bank's Approach

By: The World Bank

Economics

Trade agenda become more complex: Border barriers have come sharply down in some regions, but remain high in some -- Globalization raised importance of behind-the-border issues: Investment regulation -- Trade in services -- Standards for products, labor,and the environment -- Ensuring benefits to poor countries and poor people more pressing than ever...

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Port Reform Toolkit World Bank Financial Model Manual Concession P...

By: The World Bank

Economics

PRELIMINARY ADVICE -- Required Software: Excel 2000 for PC -- Data & parameters of modelling: It appears in blue colour and exclusively in the hypothesis sheet of the model. It can be directly modified in the cell. All other cells are parameterised on these initial values and should not be modified. -- Macro of calculation: It was elaborated so as to determine the amount of debt (Project Finance) that ?Arranging Banks? should bring to serve, besides the investments, the ...

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World Bank Port Reform Tool Kit

By: The World Bank

Economics

Transport and Terminal Operators: more cost-effective port operations and services, allowing for more efficient use of transport assets and better competitive positions in transport markets, and more business opportunities in growing sectors (e.g., container operations)...

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World Bank Port Reform Tool Kit Module 4 : Legal Tools for Port Reform

By: The World Bank

Economics

Transformation of port structures often requires new legislation. This Module identifies fundamental points to consider when developing such legislation, with examples from existing port reform regimes. The examples provided should be used for reference purposes only.

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World Bank Port Reform Tool Kit Module 6 : Port Regulation Module

By: The World Bank

Economics

There is a strong public interest in ensuring that ports operate efficiently and safely, that fair and competitive services are provided, and that ports support and foster economic development locally and nationally. The public interest in ports stems from the vital role that ports play as gateways for economic trade and commerce of most nations. In 1998, international seaborne trade totaled approximately US$ 5.6 trillion worldwide and nearly 5.1 billion tons of internat...

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The World Bank Port Reform Toolkit Overview

By: The World Bank

Economics

The process of institutional reform is complex. Moreover, most countries undertake the kinds of fundamental institutional reforms that shift boundaries between the public and private sectors less than once in each generation. Hence, the knowledge necessary to carry the reform process forward needs to be built up in most countries from a near zero base. The port reform toolkit is designed to lower the learning curve for institutional renewal by providing background inform...

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Roads Works Costs Per Km Source : World Bank Reports

By: The World Bank

Economics

The descriptions given to the road works on World Bank reports are very general (for example: rehabilitation, strengthening, periodic maintenance, reconstruction, improvement, construction, etc.). -- Most of the time no detailed information was found, such as road width, terrain, traffic, overlay thickness, regravelling thickness, rehabilitation surface, improvement type, etc.

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World Bank Rural Transport Projects Database (All Active and Plann...

By: The World Bank

Economics

World Bank Rural Transport Projects Database (All Active and Planned Projects)...

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Ayudaurbana. Com an Ucci/World Bank Knowledge Sharing Initiative f...

By: The World Bank

Economics

Union of Capital Cities of Ibero-America, founded in 1982 in Madrid -- Leading role in the international municipal movement -- Promotes ties among cities and studies issues that affect the municipalities -- Contributes to enhance the sustainable and harmonic development in the region...

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Cities in Transition : World Bank Urban and Local Government Strategy

By: The World Bank

Economics

The exercise of preparing a new urban and local government strategy for the World Bank began in late 1997 as a cross-sectoral, cross-network effort coordinated by the Urban Anchor and Urban Partnership in the Transportation, Water, and Urban Development Department. With guidance from a Bankwide steering committee, the strategy activity focused initially on organizing eight workshops at the Bank, spanning all the major urban and local governance issues. These workshops br...

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Tudur World Bank : Low Income Housing and Land Research

By: The World Bank

Economics

Objectives -- Mainstreaming housing issues into the Poverty Reduction framework. -- Assisting professionals (both at the Bank and in client countries) in improving pro-poor housing policies and programs. -- Launching a systematic knowledge management on low income housing and land strategies.

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World Bank Urban Forum 2002 Tools, Nuts, And Bolts

By: The World Bank

Economics

Overview: 10 - 20 year review of emerging practice relating LED and Urban. -- Emerging International Observatory and Networks. -- Repositioning cities in developed countries. -- Trends in Urban Economic Development in developed countries. -- Economic Development Debates and Issues. -- New Tools for Urban Economic Development. -- Transferability of Economic Development Experience; how to assess for developing countries?

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Overview of the World Banks Experience in Urban Projects with Comm...

By: The World Bank

Economics

Community Participation (CP), as an operational approach, has long been introduced into the Bank?s urban projects. Over the past 30 years or so, the Bank?s urban projects have increasingly used CP approaches that give communities control over decisions and resources. However, there is still a lack of sound statistics and analysis that can provide an overall image of the Bank?s efforts in this area.

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Interview of John F. C. Turner World Bank, Washington D. C. 11 Sep...

By: The World Bank

Economics

MR. CHAVEZ: So John, we have just heard a fascinating and very meaningful presentation by you and a discussion at the brown bag lunch we just had, which draw from a lot of your experience and that of others some very broad principles. We'll get to that a little later, but I wanted to start out by asking you to tell us about how you got started. You mentioned in the presentation today that you came to Peru; I presume you were an architect at the time in the fifties was it...

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World Bank Experience in Land Management and the Debate on Tenure ...

By: The World Bank

Economics

The Transport and Urban Development Department (TUDUR) of the World Bank has undertaken a research project on ?Low-Income Land and Housing Strategies?, funded by the Netherlands and Bank Partnership Program. The objective of the research is to help mainstream low-income housing and land market development issues into the broader, more comprehensive approach to development that is embodied in the Poverty Reduction Strategies. The aim of the research is to assist professio...

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The World Bank Environmentally Sustainable Development Staff Trans...

By: The World Bank

Economics

This ?Issues Note? is based on a desk review of some 70 Bank-supported urban projects and a dozen water/sanitation projects with components aimed at the provision of basic infrastructure services to low income urban communities. The review was prepared as an outcome of a task group, appointed by Anthony Pellegrini (Director, TWU), that included Fitz Ford, Vijay Jagannathan, Christine Kessides, and Alcira Kreimer. Views of sector staff and consultants were solicited by me...

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The World Bank Environmentally Sustainable Development Staff Trans...

By: The World Bank

Economics

This sector review aims to give perspective and momentum to the evolution of development policy in five infrastructure sub-sectors, by articulating the common issues they face in the present decade. The frame of reference of this exercise is deliberately cross-sectoral. The intended audience comprises staff of the World Bank and otherd evelopmentf inancea gencies,a s well as governmento fficials-in particular, those with responsibility for planning, financial policy, and...

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Urban Development Division Transportation, Water, And Urban Develo...

By: The World Bank

Economics

This social policy paper was written collaboratively by World Bank and local consultantsd uring Januaryt hrough April 1992. It is one of a numbero f economica nd social policy background papers written as part of the research project on ?Urban Poverty and Social Policy in the Context of Adjustment?. The Urban DevelopmenDt ivision of the World Bank is undertakingt his researchp roject, with cases tudiesi n Budapest,G uayaquil,L usaka,a nd Metro Manila. This research proje...

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