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Social Sciences


The social sciences are the fields of academic scholarship that explore aspects of human society.[1] "Social science" is commonly used as an umbrella term to refer to a plurality of fields outside of the natural sciences. These include: anthropology, archaeology, economics, geography, history, law, linguistics, political science, sociology, international relations, communication, and, in some contexts, psychology.

 
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World Health Organization : Year 1994 ; World Health Organization,...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

INTRODUCTION 1.1 The elobal burden of lenrosy Leprosy has struck fear into human beings for thousands of years, and was well recognized in the oldest civilizations of China, Egypt and India. A cumulative total for the number of human beings who, over the millennia, have suffered its 20- or 30-year course of incurable disfigurement and physical disability can never be calculated, But for the estimated global total of 2.4 million sufferers living today, relief is in sight ...

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World Health Organization : Year 1995 ; World Health Organization,...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

The centralpatt of the elimination strategy is to make the WHO-recommended MDT accessible to all patients, including those living in difficult to reach areas and populations. The purpose of this Guide is to enable every health worker in endemic countries to contribute to the historic task of reaching all leprosy patients wifh MDT and affaining the goal of eliminating leprosy as a public health problem. Although the Guide is likely to be useful for health workers at all l...

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World Health Organization : Year 1999 ; World Health Organization,...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

Acknowledgements The Department of Nutrition for Health and Development of the World Health Organization (WHO), wishes to thank all those who generously gave their time to comment on an earlier draft version, especially Rita Bhatia, United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR), Andy Seal, Centre for International Child Health, Institute of Child Health (ICH), London, and Kenneth Bailey from the Department of Nutrition for Health and Development, WHO, whose suggest...

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World Health Organization : Year 2000 ; World Health Organization,...

By: Alistair Curry

Medical Reference Publication

1. Introduction Access to a safe water supply is one of the most important determinants of health and socioeconomic development (Cvjetanovic 1986). This recognition of the importance of safe water supplies has led to an emphasis on the provision of appropriate facilities in developing countries. In the 1970s, it was realised that Bangladesh's population density and lack of access to adequate sanitation had led to severe microbiological contamination of surface water, res...

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World Health Organization : Year 2001 ; The Special Programme for ...

By: Deborah Kioy, Dr.

Medical Reference Publication

1. INTRODUCTION TO THE TDR HANDBOOK ON GLP GENERAL INTRODUCTION The need for application of quality standards in drug research, development and testing : the situation of developing countries and the role of TDR Tropical diseases are a major public health problem in developing countries. For many of these diseases there are no new, effective and affordable medicines, while older therapeutic agents are beginning to lose ground on account of the emergence of resistance aga...

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World Health Organization Publication : Year 2007 ; Issue 97892415...

By: Patricia A. Marshall, Dr.

Medical Reference Publication

Professional and public debates concerning the application of guidelines for ethical conduct in studies carried out in developing countries are likely to continue as new information becomes available. Researchers in biomedicine, public health, and the social and behavioural sciences confront the challenging task of adhering to national and international regulations in social and cultural environments in which ethical guidelines may not be easily translated or applied. In...

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Carcinogenic Effects of Benzene : An Update

By: Environmental Protection Agency

Excerpt: The major issue addressed in this document involves the nature and magnitude of the inhalation risk of cancer to humans exposed to low levels of benzene. Occupational studies continue to provide the bulk of evidence of benzene’s carcinogenicity. Workers are exposed at much higher levels than is the general public. This document reconfirms that benzene is a “known” human carcinogen by all routes of exposure. This finding is supported by evidence from human epidem...

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Combined Sewer Overflows-Guidance for Financial Capability Assessm...

By: Environmental Protection Agency

Excerpt: Because CSOs contain untreated domestic commercial and industrial wastes, as well as surface runoff many types of contaminants can be present. Contaminants may include pathogens. Oxygen-demanding pollutants.

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Bridging Gaps in Police Crime Data

Excerpt: I began work on this project because, although I had been using the UCR for many years, I had never understood all of its intricacies & and felt somewhat embarrassed to ask simple questions about why certain procedures were used, because obviously everyone else knew. It turned out, however, that most people seemed to be as much in the dark as I was, perhaps about different aspects of the UCR, and during this project we began to share our knowledge, each of us ha...

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Crs Report for Congress Received through the Crs Web European View...

By: Kristin Archick

Summary: Managing policy differences on a range of issues emanating from the Middle East poses serious challenges for the United States and its European allies and friends. The most vitriolic dispute has centered on the conflict in Iraq. However, divisions over how best to approach the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian conflict, manage Iran and Syria, and combat terrorism also persist. The Bush Administration and Members of Congress are concerned that continued disagreements b...

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An Applications Guide to Pedestrian Snm Monitors

By: Paul E. Fehlau

Introduction: Pedestrian special nuclear material (SNM) monitors offer a rapid, effective means to search for SNM as an individual departs a material-access or protected area. The SNM monitors sense gamma radiation emitted by nuclear materials, which is a more specific clue to the presence of the material than is its visual or tactile appearance. Best performance is obtained from well-designed monitors when the monitors are situated away from interfering radiation fields...

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A Plan for Estimating the Number of Hardcore Drug Users in the Uni...

By: Ronald Simeone

Acknowledgments: The members of the National Panel of Scientific Experts who reviewed our work- Douglas Anglin, William Ellis, Christopher Flinn, Wilhemina Leigh, David Nurco and Rosita Thomas- gave generously of their time, and their guidance contributed much to the quality of the final product. John Carnevale, the Director of Planning and Budget at the Office of National Drug Control Policy, provided continued support for the project.

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State Prevention System Structure and Organization

Excerpt: Structure and Organization: The Alcohol and Drug Abuse Division (ADAD) of the Hawaii State Department of Health is the single state agency designated to receive Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment (SAPT) Block Grant funds. ADAD is one of three divisions comprising the Behavioral Health Administration, which is under the administration of a Deputy Director of Health. The Deputy Director of Health reports directly to the Director of Health. Within ADAD preven...

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The Position of Director of National Intelligence: Issues for Congress

By: Alfred Cumming

Excerpt: Proposals to reorganize the United States Intelligence Community began to surface almost as soon as the management structure for the Intelligence Community (IC) was statutorily established by the passage of the National Security Act of 1947. Since then, at least 19 commissions, committees and panels, created by either the executive or legislative branches, have made numerous recommendations for structural reorganization. Several of the proposals urged stronger c...

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Prepared by the Office of Justice Programs Rural Task Force

Introduction: All too often, the challenges of controlling crime in rural communities are ignored when we talk about solutions to crime in America. While there is growing awareness about the nature of crime in this country in general, there continue to be myths and misconceptions about crime in rural America. One of those myths--and it is a myth--is that rural jurisdictions don’t have a crime problem.

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Spaced:Based Astronomy: An Educator Guide with Activities for Scie...

Introduction: If you go to the country, far from city lights, you can see about 3,000 stars on a clear night. If your eyes were bigger, you could see many more stars. With a pair of binoculars, an optical device that effectively enlarges the pupil of your eye by about 30 times, the number of stars you can see increases to the tens of thousands. With a medium-sized telescope with a light-collecting mirror 30 centimeters in diameter, you can see hundreds of thousands of st...

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Hiv Prevention Case Management

By: Jean Finn

ABBREVIATIONS: AND ACRONYMS AIDS Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome CBO Community-based organization CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention HIV Human immunodeficiency virus HRSA Health Resources and Services Administration MSM Men who have sex with men NCHSTP National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention PCM Prevention case management STD Sexually transmitted disease TB Tuberculosis...

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Instruction Manual, Part 12

By: Department of Health and Human Services

Processing: 1. Month of Birth If the natality detail record is not coded 01-12, the code from the preceding record is inserted.. Day of Birth 2. If day is not within the range of 01-31 or is 99, change to 15. 2.2, The day of birth must fall within the correct range for the month (e.g. month 04, days 01-30). If not change code for day to last permissible day of month. For example, if month is 04 and day is 31, change day code to 30.

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Current Legislative Authorities

By: Department of Health and Human Services

The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) is the Federal Government’s principal health statistics agency. The NCHS mandate from Congress addresses the full spectrum of concerns in the health field from birth to death, including overall health status, life style and exposure to unhealthful influences, the onset and diagnosis of illness and disability, and the use and financing of health care and rehabilitation services. The authorizing legislation, reprinted in thi...

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User Documentation Pc Ltas

By: Department of Health and Human Services

COPYRIGHTS: PC LTAS was developed by the Division of Surveillance, Hazards Evaluation, and Field Studies (DSHEFS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and is provided for use by the public health community. Both PC LTAS and this manual are in the public domain and may be freely copied. DISCLAIMER: No warranty is made or implied for use of PC LTAS for any particular purpose. NIOSH assumes no responsibility for any damages incurred by anyone while...

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