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Pharmacology


Pharmacology (from Greek f??µa???, pharmakon, 'poison in classic Greek; drug in modern Greek'; and -????a, 'Study of' -logia) is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action.[1] More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals.

 
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World Health Organization : Year 1987, Dap 87.6: Proceedings of th...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

INTRODUCTI-ON Duo to drug shortages occuring at all levels of the health system (but more seriously in the rural areas), the lack of foreign exchange, together with the increasing demands for effective health care in Tanzania, in 1981 the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOM) initiated a National Essential Drugs Programme which recommends an overall revision of drug policies. One of the first actions of thLe programme was the preparation of a National Essential Uru...

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World Health Organization : Year 1992 ; World Health Organization,...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

The WHO Programme for the Control of Acute Respiratory Infections (AM) was oficially established in 1982 when the World Health Assembly approved the Organization's Seventh General Programme of Work covering the period 1984- 1989. The importance of the Programme was reaffirmed in the Eighth General Programme of Work for the period 1990-1995.

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World Health Organization Publication : Year 1965, International W...

By: R. R. Willcox

Medical Reference Publication

In 1948, the World Health Assembly decided to make tuberculosis control one of WHO'S prior~ty programmes. This decision was prompted by the fact that tuberculosis was among the leading causes of death in all the Member States of the Organization and by the increasing scientific evidence of the efficacy of antituberculosis drugs and BCG vaccination. From the outset it was recognized that a quantitative definition of the tuberculosis problem was essential for the planning ...

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World Health Organization Publication : Year 2006 ; Issue 92416605...

By: L. G. Valerio

Medical Reference Publication

Calcium L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate is a synthetic derivative of naturally occurring L-5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid, which contains a reduced and methylated pteridine ring system (Figure 1). This compound has not been evaluated previously by the Committee.

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 241: Join...

By: J. P. W. Anemaet

Medical Reference Publication

INTRODUCTION The Committee was informed of the activities of FA0 and WHO in the field of meat hygiene since the meeting of the previous Joint FA01 WHO Expert Committee on Meat Hygiene in December 1954. These activities consisted notably of advisory services to various countries requesting assistance in their meat hygiene problems and in the issuance of several publications, in addition to the first report of the C0mmittee.l A monograph on meat h~giene,p~re pared by inter...

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 635: The ...

By: A. Challier

Medical Reference Publication

INTRODUCTION Trypanosomiases in Africa are s t i l l one of the most serious threats to the health of man and a serious obstacle to the development of agricultural industry. I t i s estimated that some 35 million people and approximately 25 million c a t t l e are exposed to the risk of infection: i n v a s t areas of the continent breeding of domestic stock i s impossible due to the high incidence of the disease. FA0 and WHO have recently expanded their programnes on tr...

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Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (Nhanes Iii...

By: Department of Health and Human Services

Introduction: The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) collects, analyzes, and disseminates data on the health status of U.S. residents. The results of surveys, analyses, and studies are made known through a number of data release mechanisms including publications, mainframe computer data files, CD-ROMs (Search and Retrieval Software, Statistical Export and Tabulation System (SETS)), and the Internet. The Na...

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Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

By: Department of Health and Human Services

Introduction: The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) collects, analyzes, and disseminates data on the health status of U.S. residents. The results of surveys, analyses, and studies are made known through a number of data release mechanisms including publications, mainframe computer data files, CD-ROMs (Search and Retrieval Software, Statistical Export and Tabulation System (SETS)), and the Internet.

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Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1968; Volume 39, Numbe...

By: Robert Traub

Medical Reference Publication

There is general agreement that the use of drugs should be rational; that is, that the right drug should be used for the right indication, by the right patient, in the right dose, in the right dosage form, for the right period of time and at a reasonable cost. The rational use of drugs is one of the aims of WHO and ways of achieving it are specified in various resolutions passed by the World Health Assembly. Drug utilieation research is an importadt part of the activitie...

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 301: Prot...

By: G. Arroyave

Medical Reference Publication

INTRODUCTION The question of nutritional requirements is of great concern to FA0 and WHO. These organizations advise and assist governments on such matters as food production, processing and distribution, dietary requirements and the assessment of nutritional status, in order to improve the health of the people through better nutrition. Perhaps the most important nutritional problem that is still not fully solved is that of meeting the protein requirements of man. This i...

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Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1965; Volume 32, Numbe...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

Hardly two years after Domagk's 53 epoch-making initial paper on the experimental action of prontosil, Heinemann,s2 in the Dutch East Indies, published his first observations on the treatment of trachoma with sulfonamides. Almost simultaneously, DikY5K= operbergYga5n d Lian,lo2 also in the Dutch East Indies, Loe (quoted by Forster & McGibony P7), and Gradle 76 in the USA, Burnier 37 and Victoria lS3i-n South America, Wilson,1sg Kirk, Mc- Kelvie & Hussein 94 in Africa (19...

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Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1997; Volume 75, Numbe...

By: I. E. Murdoch

Medical Reference Publication

Publications of the World Health Organization enjoy copyright protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the Universal Copyright Convention. Nevertheless, abstracting and other journals may reprint the abstract at the head of articles in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization without requesting authorization. For rights of reproduction or translation of WHO publications, in part or in toto, application should be made to the Division of Publicati...

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World Health Organization Drug Information : Volume 3, No. 4, Year...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

Authors alone are responsible for views expressed in signed articles. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers' products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature which are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.

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World Health Organization Drug Information : Volume 7, No. 3, Year...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

Introduction Onchocerciasis, or river blindness as it is sometimes called, is thought to affect at least some 20 million people in Africa and America. This is almost certainly an underestimate since new foci of infection are continually being discovered. Within recent years reports have indicated that the frontiers of the disease are wider than was previously thought, and it is now known to occur in the Yemen, Northern Sudan and Tanganyika, well outside the classic end...

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European Occupational Health Series : Year 1993, The Regional Offi...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

Contributions on subjects relevant to the interests of the World Health Organization are invited. All papers should be addressed to the Editor, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Palais des Nations, Geneva, and should conform to the following conditions : 1. Papers should be written in English, French, or Spanish (in the case of translations of papers prepared in another language, a copy of the original should also be sent). 2. Papers should be accompanied by a s...

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European Occupational Health Series : World Health Organization : ...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

This document is not issued to the general public, and all rights are reserved by the World Health Organization (WHO). The document may not be reviewed, abstracted, quoted, reproduced or translated, in part or in whole, without the prior written permission of WHO. No part of this document may be stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic, mechanical or other - without the prior written permission oE WHO.

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World Health Organization : Year 1985-86, Nutrition, Issue 85.5: A...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

I N T R O D U C T I O N The purpose of this document is to review to what extent selected technical subject areas were included in the initial national JNSP programme plans. It is hoped that chis review will be helpful to specialists in the areas concerned in the JNSP countries; it gives an idea as to what was planned in a number of countries and thus may be a source of ideas for wider application. The document may also be useful for technical specialists i n supporting ...

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World Health Organization : Year 1988 ; World Health Organization,...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

I. INTRODUCTION The Global Advisory Group of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) consists of 12 members. All WHO Regions arerepresented , six members being drawn from p a n e l s nomtnated by the Regional Offices and six members being sel ectedher atlarge or from regional panels to provide geographical and technical balance.

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World Health Organization : Year 1989 ; The Special Programme for ...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

INTRODUCTION The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) was set up in 1977 with a mandate which includes the development of new and better technologies for the control of tropical diseases. In the twelve years of its existence, and wIth a modest budget ranging from US$ 20-30 million per annum, the TDR Programme has been associated with the development of over sixty such products. It has had a major impact on basic research, as judged both ...

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World Health Organization : Year 1990, World Health Organization, ...

By: Gerd Doring

Medical Reference Publication

INTRODUCTION Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common lethal genetic disease in white populations, affecting approximately 1 in 2000 to 1 in hOOO live births in'Europe and North Americal. Ln this generalized exocrinopathy, bacterial colonization and infection of the CF respiratory tract occurs soon after birth2. 3 . Almost invariably, Staphylococcus aureus is the first detectable pathogen. Anaerobes, fungi and a number of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria may also ...

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