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Pharmacology


Pharmacology (from Greek f??µa???, pharmakon, 'poison in classic Greek; drug in modern Greek'; and -????a, 'Study of' -logia) is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action.[1] More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals.

 
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World Health Organization : Year 1988 ; Communicable Diseases and ...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

Introduction Dr T. Fujikura. Veterinary Public Health, Division of Communicable Diseases, World Hcalth Organization, welcomed the participants (Annex I) and opened the meeting on behalf of the Director-General, He recalled the background and aims of the meeting as follows: (1) to review the progress reports of the working groups, including terms of reference of each group, its membership, collaborative work plans for the period 1989-1990, information exchange and funding...

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World Health Organization : Year 1994 ; World Health Organization ...

By: C. Toscano

Medical Reference Publication

Paragonimiasis and tuberculosis are overlapping public health issues in many countries in the world. The geographical distribution of tuberculosis is global and affects about 1.7 billion persons. In contrast, paragonimiasis is generally accorded little significance on the global health agenda although at least 20 million persons are currently estimated to be infected. These are both pulmonary diseases with similar clinical manifestations, especially hemoptysis. The radio...

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World Health Organization : Year 1994 ; World Health Organization,...

By: C. Toscano

Medical Reference Publication

Paragonimiasis and tuberculosis are overlapping public health issues in many countries in the world.

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 108: Expe...

By: J. H. S. Gear

Medical Reference Publication

EXPERT COMMITTEE ON BIOLOGICAL STANDARDIZATION Xinth Report * The ninth session of the Expert Committee on Biological Standardization was held in Geneva from 10 to 15 October' 1955. The Assistant Director-General, Central Technical Services, on behalf of the Director-General of the World Health Organization, welcomed the members of the Committee and the representative of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Xations.

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 247: Expe...

By: K. S. Hocking

Medical Reference Publication

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS International interest in trypanosomiasis dates back to the days of the League of Nations, which sponsored both the first International Conference in London in 1925 and the second in Paris in 1928. The recommendations of this second Conference, based on those of the first, are of particular interest and indicate that even in those days the importance of understanding the ecology of man, fly and beast was well appre~iated.~ The World Health Organiza...

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 259: Expe...

By: H. Cohen, Dr.

Medical Reference Publication

EXPERT COMMITTEE ON BIOLOGICAL STANDARDIZATION Fifteenth Report The Expert Committee on Biological Standardization met in Geneva from 10 to 15 December 1962. Dr 0 . V. Baroyan, Assistant Director-General, on behalf of the Director- General, welcomed the members of the Committee, as well as the representative of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. He stated that with the co-operation and concurrence of that Organization and of the Ministry of Agri...

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 283: Worl...

By: C. W. Dixon, Dr.

Medical Reference Publication

INTRODUCTION Though means for the prevention of smallpox have been known since the end of the eighteenth century, the disease is still endemic in most countries in Asia and Africa and has not been completely eradicated from Latin America. Europe, North ,4merica and Oceania are free from indigenous infections but are becoming increasingly liable to the importation of infection from persons incubating the disease or suffering from mild attacks, as has been shown by recent ...

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 319: Worl...

By: J. Convit

Medical Reference Publication

1. LEPROSY CONTROL 1.1 Epidemiology Recent and past evidence continue to support the universally accepted assumption that leprosy is caused by Mycobacterium leprae, that the sources of infection are exclusively human cases discharging bacilli, and that transmission occurs by direct or indirect contact. Lepromatous cases constitute the principal, though not necessarily the only, source of infection. The attack rate for household contacts of lepromatous cases is six to eig...

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 322: Canc...

By: E. C. Easson

Medical Reference Publication

1. INTRODUCTION Cancer is a collective term for the malignant neoplasms arising in body tissue. Since it includes all malignant tumours--carcinoma, sarcoma and lymphoma-, it is preferable to speak of different cancers affecting different organs or structures. Cancers differ not only in tissue of origin and morphological appearance but also in etiology, clinical course, prognosis, age and sex incidence, and other characteristics. They also respond in different ways to tre...

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 379: Cont...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

1. GLOBAL PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE OF ASCARIASIS Obvious morbidity and mortality due to ascariasis reflects only a very small part of the impact this disease has on the health of a popu1ation.l The various aspects of the harm inflicted by ascariasis on the community include the direct effects of the worm--causing overt morbidity and mortality- and the indirect effects-the promoting of other diseases by introducing the causative agents or predisposing to other diseases, a...

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 382: Worl...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

INTRODUCTION The WHO Expert Committee on Malaria met in Geneva from 12 to 18 September 1967. The meeting was opened by Dr P. Dorolle, Deputy Director-General, who welcomed the participants on behalf of the Director- General. He emphasized that, although the agenda might appear to be short, the subjects the Committee was being asked to consider were of great importance to WHO and to malaria eradication. The Twentieth World Health Assembly had asked the Director-General to...

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 427: Bioc...

By: J. Karefa Smart

Medical Reference Publication

This was the fourth in a series of meeting convened by WHO to consider specific aspects of research in biolosical psychiatry and neurology. The objectives of these meetings have been to revien the present state of knowledge and to make recommendations for further research: on improved methods of research, and on means of promoting international collaboration in research projects where this is desirable.

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 634: Safe...

By: W. N. Alidge

Medical Reference Publication

1. INTRODUCllON Although progress has been made in genetic and other means of controlling disease vectors and agricultural pests, the use of chemical pesticides remains indispensable at present. There has in fact been a very rapid increase in the use of pesticides in most developing countries, so that in many instances the safety services find themselves overwhelmed. Laws governing the importation, registration, and handling of pesticides may be lacking, and, even where ...

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 654, (Par...

By: R. Di Perri

Medical Reference Publication

1. INTRODUCTION Involvement of peripheral nerves in disease states-a major cause of disabling morbidity-is common in all parts of the world. The putative etiological factors (including genetic, nutritional, metabolic, and toxic factors) are diverse, numerous, and bewildering in the complexity of their modes of action and interaction as well as in the nature of the biochemical and structural lesions produced. Even in diseases of the peripheral nerves, such as leprosy (pri...

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 86: Exper...

By: E. Dussert

Medical Reference Publication

The seventh session of the Expert Committee on Biological Standardization was held in Geneva from 26 to 31 October 1953. The Director-General welcomed the experts and thanked them for the work that they had already done in preparation for a long and difficult agenda. Their work aimed at making it possible for the potency of therapeutic, prophylactic, and diagnostic substances to be measured and described in terms which are accepted throughout the world. This is essential...

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Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1985; Volume 63, Numbe...

By: Robert E. Black

Medical Reference Publication

The intense evaporation oxplains not only the extremely high salinity of the Dead Sea but s l s o the d e c r e a s i n g l e v e l of its water over the y e a r s .

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World Health Organization : Year 1988 ; The Special Programme for ...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

1. INTRODUCTION African trypanosorniasfs shows a range of clinical manifestations it] diverse ecological and epidemiological situations, requiring different approaches to conrrol.. Scienrific progress during the past ten years, assisted hy funding from the UNDP/WORLD BANK/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), has advanced our understanding of thc disease and prompted the development of new tools for control.

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World Health Organization : Year 1991, World Health Organization, ...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

Following an invitation from the Government of the Gambia , the Ninth Meeting of the WHO Programme Advisory Group on the Prevention of Blindness was Held in Banjul , From 5 to March 1991

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World Health Organization : Year 1992, Ctd, Leprosy 92.5: Report o...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

On behalf of the Director-General of WHO, Dr Hiroshi Nakajima, the second meeting of the WHO Working Group on Leprosy Control was declared open by Dr R.H. Henderson, Assistant Director-General, WHO, Geneva. Welcoming the participants to the meeting, Dr Henderson stated that the major task of this Working Group was to advise the Organization on how to promote leprosy control through increased international support and coordination, and how to improve control strategies to...

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World Health Organization : Year 1992 ; World Health Organization,...

By: Halida Akhter, Dr.

Medical Reference Publication

The Safe Motherhood Initiative (SMI) is a global effort to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity. The target is to reduce maternal deaths by at least half by the year 2000 and to achieve substantial reductions in maternal morbidity. Activities within the Initiative take many forms: increasing awareness of the nature of the problem and the need for action; strengthening maternal health services; training of health workers and others; facilitating educational and economi...

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