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Pharmacology


Pharmacology (from Greek f??µa???, pharmakon, 'poison in classic Greek; drug in modern Greek'; and -????a, 'Study of' -logia) is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action.[1] More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals.

 
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World Health Organization : Year 1997 ; World Health Organization,...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

Overuiew of the present global blindness situation and future trends 1.1 PRESENT MAGNITUDE AND MAJOR CAUSES OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT An analysis of the available data on blindness and low vision, through the PBD Data Bank, points to the following situation analysis: There are nearly 38 million blind people and almost 110 minion with low vision, givinga total of nearly 150 million people with some dmegreeof visual impairment.' w There are 8.9 million blind people in India, 6....

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World Health Organization : Year 1997 ; World Health Organization,...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

This document has been produced following consultations held in Ceneva during 1996 and 1997, convened by the WHO Programme for the Prevention of Blindness and Deafness (PBD) at the request of, and with support from, the Task Force of the Partnership Committee of Nongovernrnental Developrnent Organizations. . The purpose of these meetings was to initiate the developrnent of a global plan to enable al1 parties and individuals involved in combating blindness to work in a fo...

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World Health Organization : Year 1997 ; World Health Organization,...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

Preamble This document has been produced following consultations held in Geneva during 1996 and 1997, convened by the WHO Programme for the Prevention of Blindness and Deafness (PBD) at the request of, and with support from, the Task Force of the Partnership Cornmittee of Nongovernmental Development Organizations. The purpose of these meetings was to initiate the developrnent of a global plan to enable al1 parties and individuals involved in combating blindness to work i...

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World Health Organization : Year 2001 ; Communicable Diseases and ...

By: Robert V. Tauxe

Medical Reference Publication

1. Executive summary The public health burden of campylobacteriosis is increasing. The reported incidence of campylobacteriosis in most developed countries has risen substantially during the past 20 years, and especially since 1990. In developing countries, campylobacteriosis is widespread and causes significant morbidity, and even mortality, in infants and children. Additional concerns are raised by the number of newly described Campylobacter species, as well as the inc...

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World Health Organization : Report on a European Syposium Convened...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

The , OCP presented a s u m t y of t h e h i s t o r y , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e , a c t i v i t i e s and budgetary resourt:es of the Programe i n the Volta River Basin area. This Prograormme includes seven c o u n t r i e s i n the region and covers an a r e a of 720 000 km 2 . The s i el g l em ost important a c t i v i t y of the OCP is vector c o n t r o l which comenced i n Pebrreary1 975.

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Health Organisation, Malaria Comission; World Health Organization ...

By: W. H. Wernsdorf

Medical Reference Publication

Ce document ne constitue pas une publication . formal publication . It should not be reviewed. I1 ne doit faire I'objet d'aucun compte rendu ou abstracted or quoted without the agreement of resume ni d'aucune citation sans l'autorisation de the World Health Organization . Authors alone I'Organisation Mondiale de la Sante . Les opinions are responsible for views expressed in signed exprimees dans les articles sign& n'engagent articles . que leurs auteurs .

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World Health Organization Publication : Year 2007 ; Issue 97892415...

By: Patricia A. Marshall, Dr.

Medical Reference Publication

Professional and public debates concerning the application of guidelines for ethical conduct in studies carried out in developing countries are likely to continue as new information becomes available. Researchers in biomedicine, public health, and the social and behavioural sciences confront the challenging task of adhering to national and international regulations in social and cultural environments in which ethical guidelines may not be easily translated or applied. In...

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 277: Soil...

By: P. Beaver

Medical Reference Publication

SOIL-TRANSMITTED HELMINTHS Report of a WHO Expert Committee on Helminthiases A WHO Expert Committee on Helminthiases was convened in Rio de Janeiro from 26 to 31 August 1963 to review the problems raised by soiltransmitted helminths. Dr M. A. Vaucel was elected Chairman, Dr 5. Rodrigues da Silva Vice-Chairman, and Dr P. Beaver Rapporteur.

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 314: Nutr...

By: A. Delaunay, Dr.

Medical Reference Publication

1. INTRODUCTION The concept that malnutrition could make man more susceptible to infectious disease and also alter the course and outcome of the resulting illness has long been current in the history of medicine and public health. Circumstantial evidence is plentiful, principally based on clinical experience. Well-controlled observations have been few, and hence clear proof in support of the concept has been slow to accumulate. It has been much easier to demonstrate that...

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 431: Toxo...

By: K. Raska

Medical Reference Publication

A meeting of investigators on toxoplasmosis was held in Geneva from 25 to 29 November 1968. In opening the meeting, Dr K. Raska pointed out that this infection is widespread in different parts of the world and that knowledge of some aspects of the problem is limited or lacking. The group reviewed recent progress in the taxonomy, physiology, and immunology of Toxoplasma and in the epidemiology, diagnosis, and therapy of toxoplasmosis. Clinical aspects were briefly discuss...

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 434: Afri...

By: P. Dorolle

Medical Reference Publication

In the field of training and education, and as part of the effort to further interest in the problems of trypanosomiasis, a limited number of fellowships and training grants have been awarded. Two training courses, intended particularly for those working on the problems in the field, were held, one in French in 1964 in Upper Volta and the other in Ensfish the following year in Nigeria. Finally, a joint FAO/WHO Seminar nias held in Nairobi, Kenya in 1966.

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 638: Worl...

By: Chou Hai Chun

Medical Reference Publication

The WHO Expert Committee on Biological' Standardization met in Geneva from 7 to 13 November 1978. The meeting was opened on behalf of the Director-General by Dr V. Fattorusso, Director, Division of Prophylactic, Diagnostic, and Therapeutic Substances. The Committee was informed that recent developments, at the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, London, in the technique of weighing hygroscopic materials at very low controlled humidities, have reveale...

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 669: Eval...

By: I. S. Bathia

Medical Reference Publication

The Joint FAOIWHO Expert Committee on Food Additives met in Geneva from 23 March to 1 April 1981. The meeting was opened by Dr M. Mercier, Manager of the International Programme on Chemical Safety, WHO, on behalf of the Directors-General of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and of the World Health Organization. Dr Mercier briefly reviewed the achievements of the Committee during its 25 years of activity. In particular, he noted that this Expert ...

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World Health Organization : Year 1991, Jpc12.3: Joint Programme Co...

By: Y. Aboagye Atta, Dr.

Medical Reference Publication

1. The twelfth session of the Expert Advisory Committee (EAC) was held in Ouagadougou at the headquarters of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP) from 10 to 14 June 1991. . . Informal briefing was provided on 8 June, and a visit to a settlement area was made on 9 June. 2. During the opening of the session the Committee noted that once again Programme operations had progressed well without any significant reinvasion and insecticide resistance problems...

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World Health Organization : Year 1992 ; World Health Organization,...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

Anaemia is one of the most frequently observed nutritional deficiency diseases in the world today. It is especially prevalent in women of reproductive age, particularly during pregnancy when it is often a contributory cause of maternal death. Anaemia is a disorder characterized by a blood haemoglobin concentration lower than the defined normal level, and is usually associated with a decrease in the circulating mass of red blood cells. This may result from decrked generat...

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World Health Organization : Year 1998 ; World Health Organization,...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

SUMMARY A workshop of experts on the Prevention of Hearing Impairment from Chronic Otitis Media was convened jointly by WHO and the ClBA Foundation in November 1996. Its task was to review the epidemiology, pathogenesis and management of COM and to draw up recommendations for prevention and management of chronic otitis media in the context of Primary Health Care, particularly with regard to preventing hearing loss in developing countries. Chronic otitis media is a major ...

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 411: Comp...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

INTRODUCTION The control of American and African trypanosomiasis involves considerable difficulties, particularly the continental dimensions of the problem, the large numbers of people exposed to the risk of infection, and the lack of a single inexpensive method of mass control that is effective in all epidemiological conditions. The areas principally affected by the diseases are the developing countries, which are unable to use some of the measures that have been develo...

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 455: Trep...

By: S. Christiansen

Medical Reference Publication

A WHO Scientific Group on Treponematoses Research met in Geneva from 18 to 25 November 1969. The meeting was opened by Dr A. M.-M. Payne, Assistant Director-General, who welcomed the participants on behalf of the Director-General.

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Reregistration Eligibility Decision (Red) Colletotrichum Gloeospor...

By: Janet L. Andersen

Excerpt: I am pleased to announce that the Environmental Protection Agency has completed its reregistration eligibility review and decisions on the pesticide chemical case 4103, which includes the active ingredient Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. aeschynomene ATCC 20358. The enclosed Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) contains the Agency's evaluation of the data base of this chemical, its conclusions of the potential human health and environmental risks of th...

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World Health Organization : Year 1994 ; World Health Organization,...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

Patients who can be treated during the intensive phase on an out-patient basis, will be administered their drugs from a health unit closer to their home. During supervisory visits to the health units, review the Tuberculosis Treatment Cards to determine whether these patients are regularly coming to the health units to take their drugs. Make sure any patients who have stopped taking their drugs are traced.

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