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World Health Organization Publication : Year 2006 ; Issue 9241546832 - in English: World Health Organization Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater

By World Health Organization

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Book Id: WPLBN0000216019
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 43.3 MB
Reproduction Date: 2005
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Title: World Health Organization Publication : Year 2006 ; Issue 9241546832 - in English: World Health Organization Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater  
Author: World Health Organization
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Health., Public health, Wellness programs
Collections: Medical Library Collection, World Health Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: World Health Organization

Citation

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Organization, W. H. (n.d.). World Health Organization Publication : Year 2006 ; Issue 9241546832 - in English. Retrieved from http://members.worldlibrary.net/


Description
Medical Reference Publication

Excerpt
The United Nations General Assembly (2000) adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGS) on 8 September 2000.

Table of Contents
List of acronyms and abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vi Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vii Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ix Executive summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xiii 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1.1 Objectives and general considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1.2 Target audience, definitions and scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 1.3 Driving forces behind increasing wastewater use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 1.3.1 Increasing water scarcity and stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 1.3.2 Increasing population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 1.3.3 Wastewater as a resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 1.3.4 The Millennium Development Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 1.4 Organization of this Guidelines document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 2. The Stockholm Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 2.1 A harmonized approach to risk assessment/management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 2.2 Assessment of environmental exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 2.3 Assessment of health risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 2.4 Tolerable health risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 2.5 Health-based targets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 2.6 Risk management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 2.7 Public health status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 2.7.1 Excreta-related diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 2.7.2 Schistosomiasis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 2 7.3 Vector-borne diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 2.7.4 Measuring public health status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 3. Assessment of health risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 3.1 Microbial analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 3.1.1 Survival of pathogens in soil and on crops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 3.2 Epidemiological evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 3.2.1 Risks to consumers of crops eaten uncooked . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 3.2.2 Risks to agricultural workers and their families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 3.2.3 Risks to local communities from sprinkler irrigation . . . . . . . . . . . .45 3.2.4 Overall results for farming families and local communities . . . . . . .46 3.3 Quantitative microbial risk analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 3.4 Emerging issues: infectious diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 3.5 Chemicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 3.5.1 Health impacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 3.5.2 Assessing the risks from chemical contaminants . . . . . . . .

 

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