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Radiation, Clouds, Water Vapor, Precipitation, And Atmospheric Circulation: by D.L. Hartmann

By Hartmann, D. L.

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Book Id: WPLBN0000660173
Format Type: PDF eBook
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Title: Radiation, Clouds, Water Vapor, Precipitation, And Atmospheric Circulation: by D.L. Hartmann  
Author: Hartmann, D. L.
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Language: English
Subject: Government publications, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (U.S.), NASA reference publication
Collections: NASA Publication Collection
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Publisher: National Aeronautics and Space Administration Publication

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L, H. D. (n.d.). Radiation, Clouds, Water Vapor, Precipitation, And Atmospheric Circulation. Retrieved from http://members.worldlibrary.net/


Excerpt
Introduction: The temperature near the surface of the Earth is in thermodynamic equilibrium when the absorption of radiant energy from the sun is in approximate balance with the emission of radiant energy to space by the planet. Sources of heat that are internal to the Earth system are negligible in a global sense. The energy output of the sun is a critical control on the Earth?s climate. The amount of available solar energy absorbed by the Earth depends on its reflectivity, which is strongly dependent on the fractional coverage and optical properties of clouds in the atmosphere, aerosol amount and properties, atmospheric humidity, and the condition of the surface. These properties in turn interact with the temperature distribution and circulation of the atmosphere. Surface ice cover is sensitive to the global mean temperature of the Earth, and cloud amount and properties may also change with the mean climate...

Table of Contents
CONTENTS 2.1 Introduction 43 2.1.1 Role of radiation, clouds, atmospheric water, and precipitation in climate and global change 43 2.2 Major scientific issues 43 2.2.1 Total solar irradiance and the Earth?s climate 43 2.2.1.1 Role of TSI in climate change 43 2.2.1.2 Space-based observations of TSI variability 43 2.2.1.3 Remaining uncertainties 45 2.2.1.3.1 Uncertainties resulting from measurement technology 45 2.2.1.3.2 Present and planned TSI monitoring 46 2.2.1.4 Needed observations and observational strategy 46 2.2.1.4.1 The ?overlap? strategy with ambient temperature radiometers 46 2.2.2 Role of radiation fluxes in the climate system 47 2.2.2.1 Atmospheric and surface radiative fluxes and heating 48 2.2.2.2 Absorption, scattering, and emission by gases 49 2.2.2.3 Absorption, scattering, and emission from aerosols 50 2.2.2.4 Absorption, scattering, and emission from clouds 51 2.2.2.5 Absorption, scattering, and emission by the Earth?s surface 52 2.2.2.6 Radiation in global climate models 55 2.2.3 Role of convection and clouds in climate 56 2.2.3.1 Cloud effects on the Earth?s energy balance 56 2.2.3.2 Cloud effects on the surface energy balance 58 2.2.3.3 Observations of cloud properties 58 2.2.3.3.1 Surface observations 58 2.2.3.3.2 Satellite observations 59 2.2.3.4 Modeling of clouds in the climate system 59 2.2.3.4.1 Global climate models?cloud parameterization and role in sensitivity 60 2.2.3.4.2 Regional mesoscale modeling of clouds 62 2.2.3.4.3 Cloud-scale models 64 2.2.3.5 Observational strategy for radiative fluxes and cloud properties 65 2.2.3.5.1 TOA radiative fluxes 70 2.2.3.5.2 Surface radiative fluxes 70 2.2.3.5.3 Radiative fluxes within the atmosphere 71 2.2.3.5.4 Cloud properties 72 2.2.3.5.4.1 Cloud fraction 72 2.2.3.5.4.2 Cloud height 73 2.2.3.5.4.3 Cloud visible optical depth and thermal infrared emittance 74 2.2.3.5.4.4 Cloud particle size 75 2.2.3.5.4.5 Cloud liquid/ice water path 75 2.2.3.5.4.6 Cloud mesoscale organization and structure 76 2.2.4 Water vapor and climate 76 2.2.4.1 Water vapor feedback and climate sensitivity 77 2.2.4.2 Water vapor distribution and variability 78 2.2.4.3 Maintenance of the global water vapor distribution 78 2.2.4.3.1 Role of convection and clouds 78 2.2.4.3.2 Role of large-scale atmospheric motions 79 2.2.4.3.3 Role of surface temperature 80 2.2.4.4 Water vapor in global climate models 80 2.2.4.5 Needed observations of water vapor 81 2.2.4.5.1 Available climatologies 81 2.2.4.5.2 Needed improvements 82 2.2.5 Precipitation 82 2.2.5.1 Role and importance of precipitation 82 2.2.5.1.1 Role in climate system operation 83 2.2.5.1.2 Importance in global change scenarios 84

 

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