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3-D Sound for Virtual Reality and Multimedia: by Durand R. Begault

By Begault, Durand R.

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Book Id: WPLBN0000696230
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 1.61 MB
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Title: 3-D Sound for Virtual Reality and Multimedia: by Durand R. Begault  
Author: Begault, Durand R.
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Government publications, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (U.S.), NASA reference publication
Collections: NASA Publication Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: National Aeronautics and Space Administration Publication

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R, B. D. (n.d.). 3-D Sound for Virtual Reality and Multimedia. Retrieved from http://members.worldlibrary.net/


Excerpt
Excerpt: Preface to the NASA Technical Memorandum version. Since its publication in 1994, 3-D Sound for Virtual Reality and Multimedia has received considerable attention in the audio and virtual reality community. About 3500 copies were sold of the first and second printings from Academic Press Professional, and it has been informally translated into several languages, including French and Spanish. I have continued to receive many requests for this book since it went out of print in 1998, and so have decided to provide this facsimile of the original printing for virtual acoustic researchers and enthusiasts. This is not a second edition, and it will be some years before I contemplate writing one. Readers should consult journals such as The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America or The Journal of the Audio Engineering Society for the most current research developments since the publication date. Nevertheless, the basic message of the book as well as the research reported is still relevant not only for virtual reality but also for those working in the recently evolved multi-channel ?surround sound? formats as well. I did not refresh the very out-of-date ?resources? chapter that concludes the book, for the purpose of documenting the virtual acoustic world, as it existed in 1993. In fact, the Internet has made such chapters obsolete...

Table of Contents
Table of Contents Preface to the NASA Technical Memorandum version...................................................................ix Preface.............................................................................................................................................x Overview.....................................................................................................................................xii CHAPTER ONE.............................................................................................................................1 Virtual Auditory Space: Context, Acoustics, and Psychoacoustics..................................................1 Context.........................................................................................................................................1 Source-Medium-Receiver Model: Natural versus Virtual Spatial Hearing........................................4 Application Types............................................................................................................................7 Virtual Audio: A Special Case......................................................................................................11 Components................................................................................................................................12 So What Is 3-D Sound Good For?................................................................................................13 Surround versus 3-D Sound.........................................................................................................16 Characteristics of Sound Sources....................................................................................................17 Describing Waveforms.................................................................................................................17 Periodic and Aperiodic Waveforms..............................................................................................17 Digital Sound and Signal Processing............................................................................................20 Harmonics..................................................................................................................................20 Fourier Analysis..........................................................................................................................21 Amplitude Envelope....................................................................................................................25 Perception......................................................................................................................................25 Psychoacoustics and Applications................................................................................................25 Perceptual Correlates of Frequency, Intensity, and Spectral Content.............................................27 Cognition....................................................................................................................................29 CHAPTER TWO...........................................................................................................................31 Overview of Spatial Hearing Part I: Azimuth and Elevation Perception.....................................31 Interaural Time and Intensity Cues...............................................................................................31 Lateralization..........................................................................................................................31 Physical Basis of Lateralization................................................................................................32 ITD Envelope Cue....................................................................................................................33 Perception of Lateralization.....................................................................................................34 The Precedence Effect.................................................................................................................36 ITD, IID, and Barn Owls: A Neurological Processing Model.........................................................37 Head Movement and Source Movement Cues................................................................................39 Head Movement..........................................................................................................................39 Moving Sound Sources................................................................................................................40 Spectral Cues Provided by the Pinnae............................................................................................40 Ambiguous ITD and IID Cues.....................................................................................................40 The Head-Related Transfer Function............................................................................................41 A Do-It-Yourself Experiment with Spectral Modification...........................................................44 HRTF Magnitude Characteristics..............................................................................................45 HRTF Phase Characteristics.....................................................................................................45 Localization with HRTF Cues.......................................................................................................49 Spectral Cues Provided by the HRTF........................................................................................49 Spectral Band Sensitivity..........................................................................................................52 Localization of Actual Sound Sources with HRTF Cues............................................................53 Localization of Azimuth and Elevation of Virtual Sources.........................................................57 Nonindividualized HRTFs.........................................................................................................57

 

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