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Terrestrial Exospheric Hydrogen Density Distributions Under Solar Minimum and Solar Maximum Conditions Observed by the Twins Stereo Mission : Volume 33, Issue 3 (27/03/2015)

By Zoennchen, J. H.

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Book Id: WPLBN0004002547
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 14
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Terrestrial Exospheric Hydrogen Density Distributions Under Solar Minimum and Solar Maximum Conditions Observed by the Twins Stereo Mission : Volume 33, Issue 3 (27/03/2015)  
Author: Zoennchen, J. H.
Volume: Vol. 33, Issue 3
Language: English
Subject: Science, Annales, Geophysicae
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Publication Date:
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications


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Nass, U., Fahr, H. J., & Zoennchen, J. H. (2015). Terrestrial Exospheric Hydrogen Density Distributions Under Solar Minimum and Solar Maximum Conditions Observed by the Twins Stereo Mission : Volume 33, Issue 3 (27/03/2015). Retrieved from

Description: Argelander Institut für Astronomie, Astrophysics Department, University of Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, 53121 Bonn, Germany. Circumterrestrial Lyman-α column brightness observations above 3 Earth radii (Re) have been used to derive separate 3-D neutral hydrogen density models of the Earth's exosphere for solar minimum (2008, 2010) and near-solar-maximum (2012) conditions. The data used were measured by Lyman-α detectors (LAD1/2) onboard each of the TWINS satellites from very different orbital positions with respect to the exosphere. Exospheric H atoms resonantly scatter the near-line-center solar Lyman-α flux at 121.6 nm. Assuming optically thin conditions above 3Re along a line of sight (LOS), the scattered LOS-column intensity is proportional to the LOS H-column density. We found significant differences in the density distribution of the terrestrial exosphere under different solar conditions. Under solar maximum conditions we found higher H densities and a larger spatial extension compared to solar minimum. After a continuous, 2-month decrease in (27 day averaged) solar activity, significantly lower densities were found. Differences in shape and orientation of the exosphere under different solar conditions exist. Above 3 Re, independent of solar activity, increased H densities appear on the Earth's nightside shifted towards dawn. With increasing distance (as measured at 8Re) this feature is shifted westward/duskward by between −4 and −5° with respect to midnight. Thus, at larger geocentric distance the exosphere seems to be aligned with the aberrated Earth–solar-wind line, defined by the solar wind velocity and the orbital velocity of the Earth. The results presented in this paper are valid for geocentric distances between 3 and 8Re.

Terrestrial exospheric hydrogen density distributions under solar minimum and solar maximum conditions observed by the TWINS stereo mission

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